TOXNET - Toxicology Data Network
Last Updated: Jan 8, 2020 10:09 AM
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This database is freely available to the general public via the Internet.
TOXNET (TOXicology Data NETwork) was a group of databases covering chemicals and drugs, diseases and the environment, environmental health, occupational safety and health, poisoning, risk assessment and regulations, and toxicology.
It was discontinued at the end of 2019 as a part of a broader National Library of Medicine (NLM) reorganization. However, most of NLM’s toxicology information services have been integrated into other NLM products and services and some exist independently.
- ALTBIB – provides access to PubMed/MEDLINE citations relevant to alternatives to the use of live vertebrates in biomedical research and testing. Topics and subtopics are aligned with current approaches. For example, information is provided on in silico, in vitro, and improved (refined) animal testing methods and on the testing strategies incorporating these methods and other approaches.
- ChemIDplus – contains over 400,000 chemical records, of which over 300,000 include chemical structures. ChemIDplus includes links to NLM and other databases and resources, including links to federal, state and international agencies. There are two versions. ChemIDplus Lite offers simplified Name and RN searching without the need for plugins or applets. ChemIDplus Advanced provides search capabilities beyond ChemIDplus Lite including chemical structure, toxicity, physical property, molecular formula, classification code, and locator code searching. ChemIDplus records are updated daily.
- CTD (The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database) – TOXNET’s CTD was retired. It is now accessible via NC State University. Find it here. CTD is a robust, publicly available database that aims to advance understanding about how environmental exposures affect human health. It provides manually curated information about chemical–gene/protein interactions, chemical–disease and gene–disease relationships. These data are integrated with functional and pathway data to aid in development of hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying environmentally influenced diseases. CTD also has additional ongoing projects involving manual curation of exposome data and chemical–phenotype relationships to help identify pre–disease biomarkers resulting from environmental exposures.
- Haz-Map – Although TOXNET retired Haz-Map, it is still available from the original content provider at hazmap.com. Haz-Map is an occupational health database designed for health and safety professionals and for consumers seeking information about the adverse effects of workplace exposures to chemical and biological agents. The main links in Haz-Map are between chemicals and occupational diseases. These links have been established using current scientific evidence.
- HPD (Household Products Database) – The content of HPD is available from the original content provider Consumer Product Information Database (CPID). CPID contains health effects information for products used in the home and in some commercial/institutional settings that contain chemicals. CPID contains label information, manufacturer information, information from manufacturer’s material safety data sheets, and properties and health studies for the chemical ingredients of brands.
- IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System) – TOXNET’s IRIS was retired, but the information is available on the EPA site. EPA’s IRIS Program identifies and characterizes the health hazards of chemicals found in the environment. Each IRIS assessment can cover a chemical, a group of related chemicals, or a complex mixture. IRIS assessments provide a number of toxicity values for health effects resulting from chronic exposure to chemicals. Nearly 500 chemicals are included in this database.
- ITER (International Toxicities Estimates for Risk) – provides health risk values and cancer classifications from authoritative groups worldwide for chemicals of environmental concern. ITER contains data in support of human health risk assessments. It is compiled by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA) and contains data from CDC/ATSDR, Health Canada, RIVM, U.S. EPA, IARC, NSF International and independent parties offering peer-reviewed risk values. ITER provides comparison charts of international risk assessment information and explains differences in risk values derived by different organizations. The database is updated several times a year.
- CCRIS (Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System) – developed and maintained by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). It contains over 9,500 chemical records with carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, tumor promotion, and tumor inhibition test results. Data are derived from studies cited in primary journals, current awareness tools, NCI reports, and other special sources. Test results have been reviewed by experts in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. CCRIS provides historical information from the years 1985 - 2011. It is no longer updated.
- GENE-TOX (Genetic Toxicology) – created by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), GENE-TOX has genetic toxicology test results on over 3,200 chemicals. Selected literature was reviewed by scientific experts for each of the test systems under evaluation. GENE-TOX provides historical information from the years 1991-1998. It is no longer updated.
- HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank) – was a toxicology database that focused on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It provided information on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, nanomaterials, and related areas. The information in HSDB has been assessed by a Scientific Review Panel. Over 5,000 hazardous substance records from HSDB can be downloaded, but it is no longer updated. HSDB data has been incorporated into PubChem.
Integrated into PubMed
- DART (Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology) – contains references to reproductive and developmental toxicology literature. DART is created from a search profile run against PubMed. DART previously contained additional citations from various sources that no longer exist, and from journals which are now indexed by Medline. There are nearly 350,000 DART references. In PubMed, search for “dart [subset] AND” or limit to the DART filter under Subjects.
- TOXLINE – provides bibliographic information (1840s to present) covering the biochemical, pharmacological, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals. It contains over 5.5 million references, most with abstracts, indexing terms, and Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers. The toxicology subset of MEDLINE/PubMed is part of TOXLINE. TOXLINE also contains references from specialized journals, government reports, meeting abstracts, and other relevant collections of toxicology literature. In PubMed, search for “tox [subset] AND” or limit to the Toxicology filter under Subjects.
Integrated into Bookshelf
- LactMed – contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed. It includes information on the levels of such substances in breast milk and infant blood, and the possible adverse effects in the nursing infant. Suggested therapeutic alternatives to those drugs are provided, where appropriate. All data are derived from the scientific literature and fully referenced. A peer review panel reviews the data to assure scientific validity and currency.
- LiverTox – provides up-to-date, unbiased and easily accessed information on the diagnosis, cause, frequency, clinical patterns and management of liver injury attributable to prescription and nonprescription medications and selected herbal and dietary supplements. The LiverTox site is meant as a resource for both physicians and patients as well as for clinical academicians and researchers who specialize in idiosyncratic drug induced hepatotoxicity. It is produced by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
- CPDB (Carcinogenic Potency Database) – provided standardized analyses of the results of thousands of chronic, long-term animal cancer tests conducted since the 1950s and reported in the general published literature or by the National Cancer Institute and the National Toxicology Program. This database was developed at the University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. CPDB provided historical information from the years 1980 - 2011.
- TOXMAP – a Geographic Information System (GIS) using maps of the United States to show the amount and location of toxic chemicals released into the environment. Underlying data remains accessible through their original resources.