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Campus Unrest: Timeline and Photos

Last Updated: Apr 25, 2024 12:02 PM

1961-1964

A large crowd is gathered outside Norton Union protesting the speech of Sir Oswald Mosley, September 26, 1962

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A large crowd is gathered outside Norton Union, protesting the lecture of Sir Oswald Mosley, September 26, 1962

Students begin gathering in the Buffalo Airport parking lot for the Thallus of Marchantia hoax, December 16, 1964.

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Students begin gathering in the Buffalo Airport parking lot for the Thallus of Marchantia hoax, December 16, 1964

A large group of students gathers outside the Buffalo Airport for the Thallus of Marchantia hoax, December 16, 1964

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A large group of students gathers outside the Buffalo Airport for the Thallus of Marchantia hoax, December 16, 1964

Six student hoaxers gather around a protest sign that reads

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Six student hoaxers gather around a protest sign that reads "Let the Thallus Go Back to His Palace" December 16, 1964

Students are entering the Buffalo Airport for the mock protest against the Thallus of Marchantia, December 16, 1964

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Students are entering the Buffalo Airport for the mock protest against the Thallus of Marchantia, December 16, 1964

Student hoaxers move through the Buffalo Airport as amused bystanders look on, December 16, 1964

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Student hoaxers move through the Buffalo Airport as amused bystanders look on, December 16, 1964

A large group of students crowd around a gate inside the Buffalo Airport, awaiting the Thallus of Marchantia's arrival, December 16, 1964

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A large group of students crowd around a gate inside the Buffalo Airport, awaiting the Thallus of Marchantia's arrival, December 16, 1964

Students are craning their necks and standing on furniture, trying to catch the first glimpse of the Thallus of Marchantia, December 16, 1964

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Students trying to catch the first glimpse of the Thallus of Marchantia, December 16, 1964

Students stream out of the Buffalo Airport after the Thallus of Marchantia is escorted away by the Cheektowaga Police, December 16, 1964

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Students stream out of the Buffalo Airport after the Thallus of Marchantia is escorted away by the Cheektowaga Police, December 16, 1964

1961

  • November.  The Student Senate Convocation Committee establishes the Political Spectrum of a Contemporary World lecture series.  Offering separate lectures on fascism, conservatism, liberalism, socialism and communism, the goal of the series was to "offer students the opportunity to examine and compare various political ideologies." (Siggelkow, 22)

1962

  • September 26.  Sir Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Union of Fascists, visits UB to deliver a speech as part of the Political Spectrum of a Contemporary World lecture series.
    • Over 1,500 protesters from both the university and local community groups attempt to disrupt or prevent Mosely's speech.
    • The University at Buffalo was criticized for allowing Mosley to speak, causing President Clifford C. Furnas to defend the series stating "The greatest universities of the nation are those that have stated and maintained the right to deal with controversial issues in an objective manner." (Siggelkow, 23)
  • October 31.  Herbert Aptheker visits UB to deliver a speech on communism as a part of the Political Spectrum of a Contemporary World lecture series.  Two hours before his speech was to begin, the New York State Supreme Court granted a temporary order banning his appearance.  Aptheker's lecture was defended by the State University of New York Board of Trustees who believed it to be an issue of academic freedom.

(Siggelkow, Chapter 1, pp. 19-35)

1963

  • September 27.  500 students attend a civil rights rally held outside Norton Union (now Squire Hall), peacefully protesting the church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama.  (Frankel "Civil rights rally is focus of much comment.")

1964

  • April 29-30.  The House of Representatives Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) holds hearings in Buffalo. Members of the committee urge the governor and legislature of New York State to investigate the State University of New York and the University at Buffalo for possible communist infiltration.
    • Approximately 100 students and a small number of faculty protest outside the HUAC hearings. (Siggelkow, 30-31)
  • June 5.  The New York State Supreme Court rules that Herbert Aptheker can speak at UB on the grounds of academic freedom.  In its ruling, the court "emphasized that the university could explore and expose students to controversial ideas without governmental interference." (Siggelkow, 32)
  • November 13.  Herbert Aptheker returns to UB to deliver a speech titled "Marxism: Its Relevance to the United States Today."
  • December 15-16.  The Thallus of Marchantia hoax is carried out by UB students. 
    • The hoax was conceived when students studying for final exams hit upon the idea that the biological term "thallus of  marchantia" (which refers to a type of liverwort plant) sounded like the title of the ruler from a foreign land.
    • December 15.  The Buffalo News is tricked into printing a notice of the Thallus of Marchantia's visit to Buffalo.  Fact-checkers at the newspaper confirmed that the Thallus had been booked for a two-night stay at the Lennox Hotel.
    • December 16.  One of the student pranksters flies round-trip to Newark, returning to Buffalo in costume as the Thallus.  He is greeted at the Buffalo Airport by nearly 1,000 UB students holding a mock protest of his visit.  At one point, directed by a student with a bugle, protesters charge through the airport causing a reported $2,000.00 damage (later investigations determine this figure was an exaggeration).  As the "Thallus" was taken away by the Cheektowaga Police for his safety, he confessed to the prank and was charged with disorderly conduct.

(Siggelkow, Chapter 2, p. 36-51)

Sources

  • For the following sources, digitized issues of The Spectrum and Reporter are available in the University Libraries Digital Collections.  Digitized Issues of The Spectrum are also available on the New York Historic Newspapers website.
  • Frankel, Larry. "Civil rights rally is focus of much comment." The Spectrum, October 4, 1963, p.3. 
  • Siggelkow, Richard A. Dissent and Disruption: A University Under Siege. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1991.

1966-1967

A line of students is staging a protest related to the Selective Service Qualification Test.  They are carrying picket signs that read:

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Students are protesting President Clifford C. Furnas' refusal to meet and discuss the Selective Service Qualification Test that is scheduled to be administered at UB, May 1966

Two students picketing related to the Selective Service Qualification Test being administered at UB.  They are carrying signs that read

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Students picketing related to the Selective Service Qualification Test that will be administered at UB, May 1966

A student picket line against Dow Chemical Company's recruitment visit to UB, November 1967

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Students picket against Dow Chemical Company's recruitment visit to UB, November 1967

A close up of two students participating in a picket line protesting Dow Chemical Company's recruitment visit to UB, November 1967.  The signs read

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Students picket against Dow Chemical Company's recruitment visit to UB, November 1967

Two students are standing against a wall at a meeting of faculty and students.  They are wearing protest signs that read

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Student protesters attend a meeting of faculty and students, November 1967

A line of students marches near campus, holding picket signs protesting Dow Chemical Company's recruitment visit to UB, November 1967

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Students march near campus holding picket signs protesting Dow Chemical Company's recruitment visit to UB, November 1967

1966

  • April 8.  UB announces it will administer the Selective Service Qualification Test on campus May 21 and June 3.  The test was meant to measure whether a college student qualified for draft deferment.  In response, the ad hoc Graduate Faculty Committee on the Selective Service (GFCSS) sends a letter asking President Clifford C. Furnas to speak with faculty and students to discuss reevaluating this decision.
  • May 2.  After initially refusing, President Furnas reluctantly agrees to meet with the GFCSS.  At the meeting, he tells the group that routine administrative decisions are not open to discussion. 
    • Shortly after the meeting, members of the GFCSS and more than 30 students engaged in a peaceful and orderly sit-in of the Office of the President in Hayes Hall. 
    • In response, Furnas states that he "Would not be coerced by any unauthorized group" (Siggelkow, 55) but he did not object to the sit-in as long as it did not interfere with the operations of his office.  Furnas went to far as to make arrangements for Hayes Hall to remain unlocked overnight so the demonstrators could come and go freely.
  • May 4.  The GFCSS end their sit-in of Hayes Hall.
  • May 5.  The Undergraduate Student Association brokers a meeting between members of Furnas' staff and representatives of the faculty, Student Senate and the GFCSS. 
    • The open meeting was attended by nearly 1,000 students, faculty and staff. 
    • The representatives of the administration read a statement from President Furnas saying that he would not change his mind about having an open discussion about the Selective Service Qualification test.
  • May 6.
    • 300 students hold a meeting and decide to picket Hayes Hall.  Suggestions of blocking entry to the building are rejected. 
    • At an open meeting of the GFCSS held later that day, leaders threaten to stage another sit-in of Hayes Hall unless Furnas agrees to discuss the Selective Service Qualification Test.
  • May 9.  The GFCSS sit-in is postponed when Furnas agrees to a meeting on May 12.
  • May 11.  Approximately 200 students picket Hayes Hall.
  • May 12.  President Furnas and members of his administration meet with representatives of the Faculty Senate, Graduate Student Association, Student Senate and GFCSS to discuss the Selective Service Qualification Test.  After lengthy discussions, Furnas states that his final decision would be announced the next day.
  • May 13.  President Furnas announces that the Selective Service Qualification Tests would go on as scheduled.  Their arguments finally heard by the President and facing final exams, the GFCSS end their opposition of the tests being held on campus.  The "Movement of May" was over.

(Siggelkow, Chapter3, pp. 52-62)

1967

  • September.  A small group of students belonging to the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) begin an around-the-clock protest of the Vietnam War at the fountain outside Norton Union.
  • Dow Chemical Company, manufacturer of napalm used in the Vietnam War, announces a visit to UB on October 31 to hold recruitment interviews with students from the Department of Chemistry and School of Engineering. 
    • SDS vow to disrupt the recruitment visit, violently if necessary.  They claim that by allowing Dow Chemical on campus, in effect, UB is supporting the war in Vietnam.
  • October 30.  Seeing the violent reaction to recruitment visits of Dow Chemical and the CIA at other universities, UB President Martin Meyerson decides to postpone Dow Chemical's recruitment visit.  This was done in an effort to avoid the violence and to open a dialog with students, faculty and staff about the "Open Campus" principle. 
    • Meyerson and others in his administration see Dow Chemical's recruitment visit as an issue of academic freedom and believe it should be allowed even though some see the visit as controversial.
  • October 31.  In response to the SDS claim of victory, the Spectrum student newspaper publishes an editorial which stated in part "Success by a minority who threatened violence is no success." ("So this is victory.")
  • November 13.  After meeting with President Meyerson and members of his administration, the Faculty Senate resolves to support the Open Campus principle and agrees with the administration's decision to invite Dow Chemical Company to reschedule its recruitment visit.
  • December 18.  The rescheduled Dow Chemical Company recruitment visit takes place.  The recruitment interviews are held in the Alumni Association offices located at 250 Winspear Avenue. 
    • Members of the SDS and other student protesters, numbering approximately 300 people, arrive at the site but are unsuccessful in their attempts to disrupt the interviews.
    • A digitized film of students protesting Dow Chemical Company's recruitment visit can be found on the Collections page of this guide, under the Audio Visual tab or by visiting the University Archives Historical Film Collection.

(Siggelkow, Chapter 4, pp.63-78)

Sources. 

  • For the following sources, digitized issues of The Spectrum and Reporter are available in the University Libraries Digital Collections.  Digitized Issues of The Spectrum are also available on the New York Historic Newspapers website.
  • Siggelkow, Richard A. Dissent and Disruption: A University Under Siege. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1991.
  • "So this is victory." The Spectrum, October 31, 1967, p.4.

1968-1969

Bruce Beyer, a member of the Buffalo Nine, speaks to a crowd, circa 1969

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Bruce Beyer, a member of the Buffalo Nine, speaks to a crowd, circa 1969

A student is standing amongst a large number of faculty and students attending a convocation March 3, 1969

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A student is airing his grievances at the March 3, 1969 convocation

Protesters begin to gather near the Themis research project's construction sheds after the announcement of Bruce Beyer's conviction, March 19, 1969  The Veterans' Affairs Hospital can be seen in the background.

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Protesters begin to gather near the Themis research project's construction sheds after the announcement of Bruce Beyer's conviction, March 19, 1969 

Protesters use pick axes to breach the walls of the construction sheds for the Themis research project, March 19, 1969

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Protesters use pickaxes to breach the walls of the construction sheds for the Themis research project, March 19, 1969

The walls of the construction sheds for the Themis research project are breached by protesters , March 19, 1969

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The walls of the construction sheds for the Themis research project are breached by protesters, March 19, 1969

Protesters begin to tear down the Themis research project construction sheds, March 19, 1969

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Protesters begin to tear down the Themis research project construction sheds, March 19, 1969

Remnants of the demolished Themis research project construction sheds, March, 19, 1969

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Remnants of the Themis research project construction sheds, March, 19, 1969

After demolishing the Themis research project construction sheds, student protesters occupy Hayes Hall, which was then the location of the Office of the President and other administrative offices., March 19, 1969

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After demolishing the Themis research project construction sheds, student protesters occupy Hayes Hall, which was then the location of the Office of the President and other administrative offices, March 19, 1969

President Martin Meyerson uses a bullhorn to address student protesters engaging in a sit-in of Hayes Hall, March 19-20, 1969

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President Martin Meyerson uses a bullhorn to address student protesters engaging in a sit-in of Hayes Hall, March 19-20, 1969

Vandalized ROTC offices in Clark Gym, October 15, 1969

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Vandalized ROTC offices in Clark Gym, October 15, 1969

Papers from the vandalized ROTC offices are strewn through a stairway in Clark Gym, October 15, 1969

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Papers from the vandalized ROTC offices are strewn through a stairway in Clark Gym, October 15, 1969

The burned remnants of papers from the vandalized ROTC offices in Clark Gym, October 15, 1969

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The burned remnants of papers from the vandalized ROTC offices in Clark Gym, October 15, 1969

1968

  • August 7.  After publicly burning their draft cards, Bruce Beyer and second man enter the Unitarian Universalist church on Elmwood Avenue and claim symbolic sanctuary against arrest for draft evasion.
  • August 19.  FBI, U.S. Marshalls and Buffalo Police enter the church to arrest Beyer.  (Hanley "Buffalo Nine on trial today.") 
    • Eight of Beyer's supporters are also arrested after a brief fistfight with the police and federal agents.  This group, later known as the Buffalo Nine, would be charged with assault.  Though Beyer was not a UB student, his cause finds support among UB students who oppose the draft and the Vietnam War.

(Siggelkow, p.92)

1969

  • February 17.  The trial of Bruce Beyer and three others of the Buffalo Nine begins.  Beyer was charged with failure to report for induction and assault of a federal marshal.  (Hanley "Buffalo Nine: on trial today.") 
    • UB students and other supporters of the Buffalo Nine picket outside the court building.
  • February 21.  The Spectrum publishes an article examining the ROTC program at UB.  It questions whether the program should continue to receive academic credit, draft deferment for students and the military's control over the curriculum.  The article includes the viewpoints of the UB administration, the American Association of University Professors and the Students for a Democratic Society. (Castrilli)
  • February 26
    • Bruce Beyer is found guilty of two of three counts of assault. ("Nine trial results.")
    • Angered by the results of the trial, students picketing the court building return to campus where 30 students burn their draft cards.  These supporters of the Buffalo Nine and as many as 500 other students take over Norton Union and discuss how to relate the results of the trial to UB. ("Norton 'liberated.' And now...")
  • February 28.  The Committee to Transform UB (CTUB), a steering committee of the student protesters, delivers a list of eight demands to university administration.  The demands include an integrated work force for the construction of the Amherst Campus, greater student participation in university decision making and an end to both Defense Department funded research and the ROTC program at UB. 
    • Some of the demands, such as the firing of the Buffalo Police Chief, were outside the control of the university.
  • March 1-2.  Students continue to meet in Norton Union.  Activist Jerry Rubin and poet Allen Ginsberg, both attending the New World Drug Symposium elsewhere in Norton Union, speak to the students and advise them on their next steps. (Hanley "An analysis.")
  • March 3
    • The Spectrum publishes the list of eight student demands and the university administration's response.  ("The demands - and the reply.")
    • President Martin Meyerson convenes a university-wide convocation to discuss the student demands and the administration's response.  Held in Clark Gymnasium, the convocation is attended by over 4,000 students, faculty and staff, and is covered by all three local news stations.
  • March 4-7.  A series of teach-ins are held, attended by students, faculty and administrators ("Teach-in!"). 
    • The eight student demands were used as a guide for discussions of tenure and hiring, sponsored research, and other topics related to the eight demands.  Faculty participation is mixed and many academic departments hold classes as normal.
    • Frustrated by the results of the convocation and teach-ins, members of the CTUB form the Community for Real Change (CRC) and plan protests in support of Bruce Beyer and against Themis, a research project conducted by Department of Physiology faculty that was funded by the Department of Defense. 
      • Further angering the students is the fact that the building housing Themis was being constructed by a non-integrated workforce.
  • March 19.
    • Bruce Beyer is sentenced to three years in prison.
    • Hundreds of students gather in Lafayette Square in Buffalo to protest the sentencing and burn an effigy of the presiding judge.  When nine UB students are arrested, the protesters move to the UB campus.
    • Protesters demolish the sheds containing construction equipment for Themis.
    • Approximately 500 protesters occupy Hayes Hall and submit six demands similar to those delivered to the university administration on February 8.
    • When President Meyerson's efforts to negotiate with the protesters fail, he applies for a court order to end the occupation of Hayes Hall.
  • March 20.  President Meyerson is granted the court order.  Not willing to confront the 150 Buffalo Police who had arrived to enforce the court order, the protesters leave Hayes Hall.
  • March 23.  The Faculty Senate meets and votes unanimously to support President Meyerson's handling of the occupation of Hayes Hall.  They pass a resolution affirming academic freedom and faculty prerogative in accepting Department of Defense funding for their research.
  • March 24.  President Meyerson issues a statement supporting Themis and declaring that he would call on the support of the Buffalo Police and other outside authorities in cases of "personal injury, property damage, threat, theft, sit-downs, lie-downs and attempted intimidation of teachers or students." (Siggelkow, 104)
  • March 26.  The Spectrum publishes a letter and fact sheet about UB's ROTC program.  Written by Col. John J. Herbert, Jr., professor of Aerospace Studies and head of the UB ROTC program, the letter and fact sheet defend the program and try to explain misconceptions held by some of UB's faculty, staff and students. ("Herbert outlines ROTC program.")

(Siggelkow, Chapter 6, pp.90-106)

  • September 8.  President Martin Meyerson announces he will be taking a leave of absence for the 1969/70 academic year to serve as director of the Assembly on University Goals and Governance.  Executive Vice President Peter Regan will act as UB's president in his place. 
    • According to the Spectrum, Meyerson will remain in charge of planning for the Amherst Campus, matters related to the UB Foundation and the hiring of deans and professors.  ("Regan is Acting President.")
  • October 15
    • The first Vietnam Moratorium takes place.  The Vietnam Moratorium was a nation-wide movement that encouraged students at all American colleges and universities to boycott classes and peacefully protest the Vietnam War.  ("Vietnam Moratorium planned to expand until war ends.")  
      • The schedule of events planned for the Vietnam Moratorium at UB can be found here. ("Vietnam Moratorium Schedule.")
    • The ROTC offices in Clark Hall are vandalized by 100 protesters causing an estimated $10,000 damage.
      • Some of the protesters were said to have come directly from a film about the ROTC that was being shown as part of the Vietnam Moratorium. (Bachman, "Nixon, are you listening now?")
  • October 20
    • The Spectrum reports that the University Advocate's Office along with the FBI and Buffalo Police are actively investigating the October 15 vandalism of the ROTC offices. (Vaccaro "Hunt for participants in ROTC protest continues.")
    • The University Advocate's Office issues a report detailing the early findings of  the ROTC investigation.  The report claims there is evidence that the vandalism had been pre-planned up to a week in advance and that names of some of the protesters were known.  Among the protesters were teaching assistants, graduate students, undergraduate students and high school students. ("Identities known in ROTC investigation.")
  • October 28.  Protesters participating in a demonstration they call "Revolutionary Dance 101" meet on the ROTC drill field and disrupt the ROTC drills taking place.  The protesters would face charges brought by the newly established University Advocate including "demonstrating in such a manner as to jeopardize public order and safety." (Vaccaro "ROTC 'dance' fosters Advocate's complaints.")
  • October 30.  Evidence is turned over to DA Michael Dillon regarding the October 15 ROTC office vandalism.  Includes names of 20 undergraduate and graduate students as well as non-students.
  • November 3.  The Spectrum reports that leaders of multiple student government organizations sent a letter to LeRoy Pesch, Dean of the School of Medicine.  They claim that no African American students have been admitted to the School of Medicine for 25 years and ask that local African American professionals be added to the school's admissions committee. ("Students call for black members on commission.")
  • November 5.  Approximately 150 students march through the School of Medicine protesting its admissions policies and the school's monetary contributions to the Themis research project.
    • Assistant Dean Edward J. Marine meets with the students and tells them that the State University of New York does not allow the School of Medicine to include photographs of applicants or questions about race to the school's admissions application form, making it difficult to determine the race of applicants from the form. (Doane)
  • November 6.  The Organization for Afro-American Awareness (OAAA), the Black Student Union (BSU), the Puerto Rican Organization for Dignity, Elevation and Responsibility (PODER) and two other student groups present a list of six demands related to the School of Medicine's recruitment and admissions policies to Dean LeRoy Pesch.  He replies that many of the school's admissions policies are set nationally and are not controlled by UB. (Bachmann "Open it up or shut it down.")
  • November 10.  Approximately 150 students from the OAAA, BSU, PODER and Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) march to the School of Medicine demanding a yes or no answer to their demands.  When Dean Pesch responds "no." the protesters call for a university-wide strike. (Miller)
  • November 11-21.  Acting President Peter Regan issues a series of statements regarding some of the recent protests.  He condemns the violence, destruction and disruption of the functions of the university.  He also states his intention to "call upon such internal or external security forces as may be necessary to bring the illegal activity to an end." (Siggelkow, 111)
  • November 14.  The Spectrum reports that with the support of Acting President Regan, the School of Medicine has reversed its position regarding the demands of the OAAA, BSU and PODER.
    • A statement from the school reads "The School of Medicine affirms the belief of open admissions and health care for disadvantaged communities.  To this end it will work with disadvantaged communities to specify jointly acceptable steps that will 1.) implement increased minority enrollment in 1970 and continued increases in following years and 2.) plan for improved healthcare in disadvantaged areas." (Hopkins)
    • Representatives of the OAAA, BSU and PODER form an implementation committee to work with representatives of the School of Medicine on addressing the student demands.  They vow to continue their strike until concrete steps have been taken. (Hopkins)
  • November 19.  Eight African American members of the UB Bulls basketball team announce they are boycotting the team.  They present a list of grievances and demands and claim that some of the players were recruited under the false assumption that their financial needs would be provided for. (Engel)
  • November 21.  The Basketball team boycott is ended when representatives of the Division of Athletics meet with the boycotters and agree to a three point plan.  ("Bulls meet Maryland.")

(Siggelkow, Chapter 7, pp.107-112)

Sources:

  • For the following sources, digitized issues of The Spectrum and Reporter are available in the University Libraries Digital Collections.  Digitized Issues of The Spectrum are also available on the New York Historic Newspapers website.
  • Bachmann, Sue. "'Open it up or shut it down.'"  The Spectrum, November 10, 1969, p.2.
  • Bachmann, Sue. "Nixon are you listening now?" The Spectrum, October 17, 1969, p.1.
  • "Bulls meet Maryland." The Spectrum, November 24, 1969, p.9.
  • Castrilli, Joseph. "Campus ROTC draws fire." The Spectrum, February 21, 1969, pp. 1, 5.
  • "The demands - and the reply." The Spectrum, March 3, 1969, p.5.
  • Doane, Jan. "Students demand immediate reforms in medical school." The Spectrum, November 7, 1969, p.3.
  • Engel, Mike. "Black athletes boycott." The Spectrum, November 21, 1969, p.1.
  • Hanley, Linda. "Buffalo Nine on trial today." The Spectrum, February 17, 1969, p.1.
  • Hanley, Linda and Daniel Lasser. "An analysis." The Spectrum, March 3, 1969, p.1, 4, 7.
  • ""Herbert outlines ROTC program." The Spectrum, March 26, 1969, p.20.
  • Hopkins, Greg. "Med School: talks and strike continue." The Spectrum, March 14, 1969, p.1.
  • "Identities known in ROTC investigation." The Spectrum, October 22, 1968 p.2.
  • Miller, Curt. "Pesch says no to demands." The Spectrum, November 12, 1969, p.1.
  • "Nine trial result." The Spectrum, February 28, 1969, p.2.
  • "Norton 'liberated.' And now..." The Spectrum, February 28, 1969, p.1. 
  • "Regan is Acting President." The Spectrum, September 12, 1969, p.3.
  • Siggelkow, Richard A. Dissent and Disruption: A University Under Siege. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1991.
  • "Students call for black members on commission." The Spectrum, November 3, 1969, p.1.
  • "Teach-in!" The Spectrum. March 7, 1969, p.1.
  • Vaccaro, Bill. "Hunt for participants in ROTC protest continues." The Spectrum, October 20, 1969, p.1.
  • Vaccaro, Bill. "ROTC 'dance' fosters Advocate's complaints." The Spectrum, November 3, 1969, p.3.
  • "Vietnam Moratorium planned to expand until war ends." The Spectrum, October 8, 1969, p.11.
  • Vietnam Moratorium schedule." The Spectrum, October 15, 1969, p.2.

Spring 1970

Two African American students read a newspaper article about the basketball game sit-in that took place on February 24, 1970

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Two students read a newspaper article about the basketball game sit-in that took place on February 24, 1970

The Office of the President in Hayes Hall with windows broken by rocks thrown by protesters, February 25, 1970

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The Office of the President in Hayes Hall with windows broken by rocks thrown by protesters, February 25, 1970

Police stand on the steps of Norton Union at night.  A K-9 Corps vehicle is in the foreground as well as a police officer with a dog on a leash, February 25, 1970

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Police outside Norton Union, February 25, 1970

A large group of students is confronting Erie County Sheriff Deputies who are wearing riot gear and are armed with teargas, February 26, 1970

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Students confront Erie County Sheriff deputies, February 26, 1970

Vice President for Student Affairs Richard Siggelkow confronts Erie County Sheriff Deputies who are dressed in riot gear and armed with tear gas, February 26, 1970

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Vice President for Student Affairs Richard Siggelkow confronts Erie County Sheriff deputies, February 26, 1970

A burned section of library shelving with melted shelves covered in ash is surrounded by unburned sections of shelving, February 26, 1970

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Fire damage to Lockwood Library stacks, February 26, 1970

The charred remains of filing cabinets in the Office of Admissions and Records in Hayes Annex B, caused by a fire bomb, February 28, 1970

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Damage to the Office of Admissions and Records in Hayes Annex B, caused by a fire bomb, February 28, 1970

Guest lecturer John Hold speaking to a large group of students at a strike meeting in Clark Gym, March 2, 1970

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Photograph by Philip Segal

Guest lecturer John Holt speaking at a strike meeting in Clark Gym, March 2, 1970

A large crowd of students are in Clark Gym holding a strike meeting, March 2, 1970

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A strike meeting in Clark Gym, March 2, 1970

Acting President Peter F. Regan and other UB administrators are speaking to a crowd of students at a public meeting to discuss the future of the ROTC program at UB, March 3, 1970

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Acting President Peter F. Regan (center) and other administrators at a public meeting to discuss the future of the ROTC program at UB, March 3, 1970.

Hayes Hall blockade, March 5, 1970.  Student surround Hayes Hall blocking the entrances.  In the foreground a masked protester is wearing a hardhat and holding his hands above his head.  A member of the Peace Patrol, wearing a white armband, is walking nearby.

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Hayes Hall blockade, March 5, 1970.  A member of the Peace Patrol can be seen to the right of the photo.

Acting President Peter F. Regan is meeting with two advisors, circa 1970

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Acting President Peter F. Regan (center) meeting with advisors, circa 1970

Members of the Buffalo Police are gathered in Clark Gym.  The policemen are wearing riot gear, March 8, 1970

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The Buffalo Police gathering in Clark Gym, March 8, 1970

Four Buffalo policemen wearing riot gear are looking at campus maps, March 8, 1970

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Studying campus maps, March 8, 1970

Six Buffalo policemen wearing riot gear are stationed at the doorway to a building, March 1970

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Buffalo Police stationed outside Hayes Hall, March 1970

A line of Buffalo policemen wearing riot gear are stationed outside Hayes Hall, March 8, 1970

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Buffalo Police stationed outside Hayes Hall, March 8, 1970

Members of the Peace Patrol conferring with Buffalo police officers

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Members of the Peace Patrol conferring with Buffalo Police officers, March 8, 1970

A long line of students and faculty are marching in protest of the Buffalo Police occupation of campus, March 8, 1970

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Students and faculty marching in protest of the Buffalo Police occupation of campus, March 8, 1970

A student member of the Peace Patrol is standing near four Buffalo Police officers who are wearing riot gear, March 1970

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A student member of the Peace Patrol, March 1970

Protesters are carrying a coffin draped with the American Flag at the head of a long procession.  They are participating in a mock funeral for the university, March 9, 1970

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Protesters participating in a mock funeral for the university, March 9, 1970

A large crowd of demonstrators stand in and around the empty Norton Union fountain for a pig roast, protesting against the police on campus, March 10, 1970

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Demonstrators roasting a pig in the Norton Union fountain in protest of the police being on campus, March 10, 1970

A close up of the roasted pig with a toy sheriff badge stuck to its nose being roasted in the Norton Union fountain, March 10, 1970

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A pig with a toy sheriff badge stuck in its nose being roasted in the Norton Union fountain, March 10, 1970

Five members of the the Faculty Senate Executive Committee are sitting at a table on a dais at the full Faculty Senate meeting held in Memorial Auditorium, March 11, 1970

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The Faculty Senate Executive Committee at the full Faculty Senate meeting held in Memorial Auditorium, March 11, 1970

A large number of Faculty Senate members are seated in rows of chairs on the floor of Memorial Auditorium while a large number of observers sit in the stands, March 11, 1970

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The full Faculty Senate meets in Memorial Auditorium, March 11, 1970

Students and faculty observing the full Faculty Senate meeting from the stands in Memorial Auditorium, March 11, 1970

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Students and faculty observing the full Faculty Senate meeting in Memorial Auditorium, March 11, 1970

On the night of March 12, 1970, a large crowd of demonstrators gathered on the lawn near a line of police guarding Hayes Hall.  Violence would erupt between the two groups, injuring 58 people.

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On the night of March 12, 1970, a large crowd of demonstrators gathered on the lawn near a line of police guarding Hayes Hall. Violence would erupt between the two groups, injuring 58 people.

An injured student with blood running down the side of his head is seated and leaning forward.  Someone is pressing a bandage to his head.  March 12, 1970

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An injured protester receives first aid, March 12, 1970

An arrested protester is being led away by two policemen, March 12, 1970

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A protester being arrested, March 12, 1970

Three unused Molotov cocktails found by custodian Raymond Renning, March 14, 1970

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Three unused Molotov cocktails found by custodian Raymond Renning, March 14, 1970

Members of the Faculty 45 are led out of Hayes Hall and into a police truck, March 15, 1970

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Members of the Faculty 45 are led out of Hayes Hall and into a police truck, March 15, 1970

A large group of demonstrators gathers to protest in support of the Faculty 45.  A number of police are observing nearby.  March 16, 1970

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A demonstration in support of the Faculty 45, March 16, 1970

Buffalo Police officers wearing riot gear and armed with tear gas stand in the road on Main Street with tear gas clouds spreading in the background, May 5, 1970

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Buffalo Police officers stand in the road on Main Street with tear gas clouds spreading in the background, May 5, 1970

Clouds of tear gas float across campus near Foster Hall, May 5, 1970

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Clouds of tear gas float across campus near Foster Hall, May 5, 1970

1970 (January-June)

  • January 20.  President Martin Meyerson announces that he will be leaving UB.  He will become President of the University of Pennsylvania, effective June 1970.
    • He will continue to retain one-third of his presidential duties and Peter Regan will continue as Acting President until Meyerson's successor is chosen.
  • January 28.  16 students charged with the October 15 vandalism of the ROTC offices are arraigned in Erie County Court. ("'The Rising of the Cry 19' to echo in Buffalo's courts.")
    • The trial would continue through 1971.  
  • February 4The Spectrum publishes a memo from UB Law School professor James Magavern to Acting President Peter Regan.  It details specific instances of campus unrest during the Fall 1969 semester and the university administration's position on them.  The memo was introduced as evidence by the defense in pretrial proceedings in the October 15 ROTC vandalism case. ("From Magavern to Regan on campus unrest.")
  • February 16.  The Student Judiciary begins its trail of nine protesters involved with the Revolutionary Dance 101 disruption of the ROTC drills on October 28. (Vaccaro)
  • Tuesday February 24.  Protesters stage a sit-in of a UB men's basketball game in Clark Gym, causing the game to be cancelled.
    • The students were supporting African American athletes in their ongoing negotiations to reform the financial aid and recruitment practices of the Division of Athletics. (also see the November 19 and 21 entries in the 1969 portion of this timeline)
    • The Buffalo Police Tactical Patrol Unit (TPU) assists Campus Police in clearing Clark Gym. 
      • At this time, Campus Police could not ask for assistance from outside police forces without authorization of university administration. In turn, university administration was to consult UB's Security Task Force, a faculty/student advisory group, before granting such authorization.  It is unclear who called the TPU for assistance.
  • Wednesday February 25. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) hold a rally in Norton Union to discuss the Clark Gym sit-in.
    • A spokesman for the African American athletes says they are happy with the progress of their negotiations with university administration.
    • After the meeting, a group of approximately 50 students decides to march to the President's Office in Hayes Hall and ask Acting President Peter Regan about who authorized the Buffalo Police to enter campus the previous night.
    • When denied a meeting with Regan, a number of the students throw rocks through his office window and then scatter.  Some flee to Norton Union.
    • Regan calls on Campus Police to arrest the rock throwers.  Staged in Clark Gym to prevent another basketball game sit-in, Campus Police officers were wearing riot gear.
    • Campus Police proceed to Norton Union and arrest three suspects.
    • The Buffalo Police TPU is called to help clear Norton Union of students.
    • AUTHOR'S NOTE: Accounts of the arrests and the conduct of both the Police and students vary.  By the end of the night, there are reports of students and police being injured, and both university property and Buffalo Police vehicles being damaged.  Investigative reports, newspaper articles and interviews give accounts of the events from the perspective of the students, UB administrators, Campus Police and Buffalo Police.  These can be found in:
      • Richard A. Siggelkow's Dissent and Disruption: A University Under Siege, pages 139-153.  A full citation for this book can be found below in the Sources.
      • "Extra!!  Invasion!" The Spectrum, February 26, 1970 pp,1-2. 
      • The Report to the University: A Reconstruction with Commentary of Critical Events on Wednesday, February 25, 1970" (also known as the Greiner Report).  This can be found in collection 3/5/33, Campus Unrest at the State University of New York at Buffalo records, University Archives, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York.

(Siggelkow, Chapter 9, pp 135-153)

  • Thursday February 26.
    • Many high-level UB Administrators begin operating out of undisclosed off-campus offices (Siggelkow, 203)
    • Approximately 1,000 students hold a rally in Norton Union and discuss the events of the previous night.
    • After the rally, 300 students march to the Office of the President in Hayes Hall, meaning to confront Acting President Peter Regan.
      • Not finding him, the students leave Hayes Hall and spot a group of 30 Campus and Buffalo Police who had been called upon to watch Clark Gym.
      • The students march toward the police and begin to throw ice, rocks and other objects at them, causing the police to retreat from campus.
    • 70 Erie County Sheriff deputies arrive on campus equipped with riot gear and tear gas.  They are confronted by a crowd of 600 students.  The number of students soon doubles, though most of the students are described as curious bystanders.
      • Vice President for Student Affairs Richard Siggelkow intervenes and asks the deputies to leave campus.  The students disperse once the deputies leave.
    • Fires are set in a number of buildings on campus, including Hayes Hall.
    • A Molotov cocktail thrown through a window burns approximately 1,000 Spanish language books in Lockwood Library (now Abbott Hall).
  • Friday February 27.
    • New York State Supreme Court Justice Frederick M. Marshall issues a temporary restraining order on demonstrations that interfere with normal university operations.
    • The Spectrum reports an announcement by Acting President Regan to reestablish a Rumor Control Center "to convey accurate, current information and to dispel misinformation."  He also announces the formation of a commission on campus disorder to investigate the involvement of UB students, faculty, staff and administrators in the events of February 26 (Trebach)
  • Saturday February 28.  Students meet in Norton Union to discuss a possible strike (boycott of classes).
  • Sunday March 1.  
    • Acting President Regan delivers a televised address blaming the protests and damage on a small minority of "vicious vandals." (Pruitt and Gahagan, 356)
    • The UB Council approves the establishment of the Temporary Hearing Commission on Campus Disruption.  The thirteen member commission, consisting of faculty, staff and students, was to hold hearings to investigate disruptions to campus operations and make recommendations for disciplinary action to the president.  The commission would be chaired by Dr. Robert L. Ketter. ("Commission on Campus Disruptions.")
      • In a July 24, 1970  article, the Spectrum reports that as a result of the commission's recommendations, two students were permanently expelled from UB and nine others were either suspended, placed on probation or given warnings. (Miller)
  • Monday March 2.
    • Classes are cancelled in hopes that it will provide a cooling-off period for the campus.
    • Protest leadership forms a Strike Committee and holds a meeting in Clark Gym attended by approximately 2,500 students.  Student Association leaders, seen as too closely linked to university administration, are not allowed to speak. (Pruitt and Gahagan, 356)
    • The Peace Patrol is formed by a volunteer group of faculty and students. 
      • Members would carry no weapons and make no arrests. 
      • Members wear white armbands (student members often add a nametag that includes their name and student ID number) to clearly identify themselves as members of the Peace Patrol. 
      • Their aim was to patrol campus and keep the protests open and safe. 
      • They were led by Dr. David G. Hays, Chair of the Linguistics Department.
  • Tuesday March 3.
    • Though some students continue to picket, most students attend classes and support for a student strike wanes. (Pruitt and Gahagan, 357)
    • Acting President Regan holds a public meeting to discuss the future of the ROTC program at UB.  When students attending the meeting begin heckling Regan and asking him about lifting the injunction against protesting, Regan leaves the meeting.
  • Wednesday March 4
    • David Hays states that if the Buffalo Police were again called to campus, the Peace Patrol would try to act as a buffer between the police and protesters.
    • Approximately 400 students picket in support of the strike but a large majority of students continue to attend classes.
    • UB administration announces the suspension of 20 students linked to the protest movement.  The flawed list includes non-students, former students who had left the university before the Spring 1970 semester, and students who were later proven to be out of town at the time of the protests.
    • Acting President Regan continues to refuse meetings with the Strike Committee, concerned that meeting with the group would legitimize them as representatives of the student body.
    • The Strike Committee refuses to meet with any administrators until the injunction against protesting is lifted and the administration agrees to stop calling the Buffalo Police onto campus.
  • Thursday March 5.
    • Acting President Regan appoints faculty members Lawrence W. Chisholm, Konrad van Moltke and William R. Greiner to investigate the events of February 25.  They will become known as the Greiner Commission.
    • New York State Supreme Court Justice Gilbert H. King reissues the temporary restraining order on demonstrations that interfere with normal university operations. (Whitcher, 17)
    • Student protesters, led by the Strike Committee, block entrances to Hayes Hall.
  • Friday March 6.
    • The student blockade of Hayes Hall resumes but with a smaller number of student protesters.  (Pruitt and Gahagan, 357)
    • Student protesters turn on fire hoses in Hayes Hall, flooding the basement.  Other students occupy the Office of Admissions and Records in Hayes Annex B.  (Pruitt and Gahagan, 357)
    • David G. Hays resigns from the Peace Patrol citing Acting President Regan's refusal to meet with him.
    • Facing increased pressure from the local community as well as state and local elected officials, Acting President Regan meets with his closest advisors to discuss asking the Buffalo Police to return to campus and end both the blockade of Hayes Hall and the student strike.
      • In anticipation of this request, the Buffalo Police have drawn up plans for a major operation on campus.
  • Saturday March 7.
    • Acting President Regan meets with select faculty and administrators to announce his decision to ask the Buffalo Police to return to campus.  The duties of the police and how they would patrol campus were also discussed.
    • No student rallies, building occupations or other protests take place.

(Siggelkow, Chapter 10, p. 154-178)

  • Sunday March 8.
    • 400 Buffalo Police officers arrive on campus and begin around the clock patrols.
      • Acting President Regan states that he called the police "to protect the safety and rights of individuals on campus, guard university property and arrest any violators of the injunction."  (Hertzberg)
      • Digitized films of the Buffalo Police patrolling campus can be found on the Collections tab of this guide under the Audio/Visual tab or by visiting the University Archives Historical Film Collection.
    • The police presence on campus reinvigorates the student protests. (Pruitt and Gahagan, 358)  
    • 2,000 students and faculty (some sources say as many as 5,000) march in a peaceful protest of the police being on campus.
      • Members of the Peace Patrol attend the march and try to act as a buffer between the protesters and police.  
  • Monday March 9.
    • Warren Bennis resigns as Acting Executive Vice President of UB calling the police occupation of the university premature.
    • In a number of schools and departments across the university, as well as faculty and students hold votes showing their opposition to the police being on campus.  Some call for Acting President Regan to resign, while others refuse to hold classes until the police leave.
    • Equipped with a flag draped coffin, 350 students hold a mock funeral for the university. 
      • Anti-Vietnam War leader Jerry Rubin gives the eulogy at the funeral ceremony.  (Buffalonian, 78)
  • Tuesday March 10.
    • Protesters hold a pig roast in the fountain outside Norton Union. "Pigs off Campus" and other similar sayings are spray painted on campus buildings. 
    • The results of the Greiner Commission's investigations of the events of February 25 are published in a special issue of the Spectrum. ("A Report to the University" The Spectrum, extra edition, vol.20, no.66, March 10, 1970)
    • Acting President Regan rescinds the March 4 suspensions of 20 students.
      • Specific charges would be brought against each student and the incident would be investigated by the Temporary Hearing Commission on Campus Disruptions.  ("Suspensions lifted.")
    • The Academic Task Force is established to deal with the issues raised by the protesting students.  Though invited to join, members of the Strike Committee refuse to participate.
  • Wednesday March 11.
    • The full Faculty Senate meets in the Memorial Auditorium, former home of the Buffalo Sabres.
      • Acting President Regan announces that he is planning a phased withdrawal of the Buffalo Police.
      • The Faculty Senate votes to remove the police immediately.
      • A vote of no confidence in Acting President Regan fails 417-263.  As the results are announced, students seated in the upper level of the Memorial Auditorium being to jeer and heckle the senators.
    • At a nighttime rally, the Strike Committee issues an ultimatum to the university administration: "meet the strike demands by 9:00 p.m. the next day or face the outcome of a War Council." (Pruitt and Gahagan, 359)
      • The Strike Committee demand that the police leave campus, an unconditional amnesty to be given to all protesting students and an end to the ROTC program at UB.
  • Thursday March 12.
    • Members of the faculty visit President Martin Meyerson, who is still on leave, and ask him to resume university leadership.  Meyerson refuses.
    • A small group of students holds roving protests at various locations across campus.
    • In an attempt to avert the War Council, members of the faculty ask Acting President Regan to meet with members of the Strike Committee.  Regan again refuses as he feels that doing so will give the Strike Committee legitimacy.  (Pruitt and Gahagan, 359)
    • Acting President Regan announces that a phased withdrawal of the Buffalo Police will begin March 17.
    • 1,000-1,500 people attend a nighttime rally at Norton Union.  Mixed among the UB students are students from other colleges, high school students and other members of the local community.  
      • The War Council begins when the rally moves to Clark Gym.  Demonstrators burn a bed sheet painted to resemble the American flag and chant slogans in support of North Vietnam.  The protesters then begin to throw rocks, ice and other items at police officers gathered nearby.
      • The protesters move from Clark Gym to Hayes Hall where they confront 200 police who are lined up in front of the building.  Both sides jeer at and taunt the other before the protesters move on to the Themis site.
        • Themis was a research project conducted by faculty from the Department of Physiology faculty that was funded by the Department of Defense.
      • Protesters throw rocks at windows at the Themis site and are confronted by 75 police officers.  The Peace Patrol again tries to prevent violence by getting in-between the protesters and the police.
      • Approximately 1,000 protesters return to Hayes Hall and again confront the 200 police officers there.
        • Rocks are thrown by protesters at already broken Hayes Hall windows, showering nearby police with glass.  At this, a number of officers charge the crowd and begin to club protesters, members of the Peace Patrol and non-protesting bystanders.
        • 58 people are injured.  Some receive treatment from Student Health Services, while others are taken by ambulances to area hospitals.  Six people are arrested.   ("Strikers Reject Violence After Fracas Injures 58.")
  • Friday March 13.
    • Shortly after midnight, Professor Claude Welch, then Dean of Undergraduate Studies, averts another confrontation between the police and a group of protesters who had gathered at the fountain outside Norton Union. 
      • Welch convinces the students to disperse to their dorms and the police to return to their campus headquarters.
    • At a meeting between the Strike Committee members and faculty, the University Survival Group is formed.  The Group of 30 deans, department chairs, and professors hoped to fill what they believed was a gap in leadership at the University.  (Whitcher, 20)
      • In the coming days, the group would repeatedly ask Acting President Regan to resign but he would refuse to do so. (Pruitt and Gahagan, 360)
  • Saturday March 14.
    • The University Survival Group contacts State University of New York administration directly and conveys their version of the events of March 12 and what had led to the confrontation.
    • Acting President Regan meets with area legislators to explain his policies and the recent events on campus.
    • At a press conference, Acting President Regan states that classes would continue to be held and that the Buffalo Police would remain on campus until the disruptions ceased.

(Siggelkow, Chapter 11, p. 179-202)

  • Sunday March 15.
    • In response to the violence of March 12, a group of faculty stage a sit-in of the President's Office in Hayes Hall.  They become known as the Faculty 45.
      • The Faculty 45 say that they will remain in the President's Office until the police are removed from campus and the injunction against protests is lifted.
      • Within two hours of entering Hayes Hall, the Faculty 45 are arrested and removed from the building.
      • The Faculty 45 are charged with criminal contempt and criminal trespass. 
        • On November 5, after months of legal proceedings and court hearings, the charges would be thrown out and convictions reversed.
      • A musical group known as Vizzy Goth and His Viscous Vandals (a reference to Acting President Regan's televised remarks on March 1) record "The Hayes Hall Blues" on a 45 RPM record.  Proceeds of the record's sales are donated to the Faculty 45's legal defense.
        • Links to a digital recording of "The Hayes Hall Blues" and its lyrics can be found on the Collections page of this guide under the Audio/Visual tab.

(Siggelkow, Chapter 12, p.203-220)

  • Monday March 16.
    • Peaceful demonstrations take place protesting the arrest of the Faculty 45. (Pruitt and Gahagan, 359)
    • Campus Police report that they were fired upon by a sniper while investigating a report of Molotov cocktails being made near the dorms.
  • Tuesday March 17.
    • At a meeting of the Faculty Senate, the University Survival Group presents a motion of no confidence in Acting President Regan and his administration.  The motion passes by a large majority.  (Pruitt and Gahagan, 360)
    • 300 demonstrators march at UB's Ridge Lea Campus protesting the police occupation of the main campus.
  • Wednesday March 18.
    • The last student protest takes place but it is sparsely attended as many students have begun leaving campus for Spring Break. (Pruitt and Gahagan, 360)
    • The Faculty Senate ad hoc Committee to Investigate the Question of the AFROTC at UB issues its final report.  It recommends the elimination of the program at UB. ("ROTC Report.")
  • Thursday March 19.  The Faculty Senate meets for the second time in one week to consider a resolution to end the ROTC program at UB.  The resolution passes 229-92.  (Castrilli)
  • Friday March 20.  Acting President Regan again states that the Buffalo police will remain on campus until violent protest and vandalism stops. (Whitcher, 20)
  • Saturday March 21.  Spring Break begins.
    • The Buffalo Police will leave campus before the end of Spring Break. (Pruitt and Gahagan, 360)
  • Monday March 30.  Classes resume.
  • April 1.  State University of New York Chancellor Samuel B. Gould creates a special University Commission at UB. 
    • The Commission (sometimes referred to as the Executive Council) was created to assist Gould and Acting President Regan in dealing with campus problems such as governance, campus security and the ROTC program. 
    • Led by Dr. Ira Cohen, Provost of UB's Faculty of Social Sciences and Administration, the University Commission consists of eight faculty and three students.  ("Special Commission Confused.")
  • April 14.  Peter Regan announces that he will be stepping down as Acting President of UB to resume his faculty position, effective August 31.  ("Regan steps down.")
  • April 23.  Dr. Claude Welch is named by the University Commission to negotiate the termination of the contract between UB and the United States Air Force that allowed the ROTC program to operate at UB.  ("ROTC phase-out to be planned by new council.")
  • May 5.  2,000 students from UB, Buffalo State College and Canisius College are teargassed by the Buffalo Police as they march down Main Street toward downtown Buffalo. 
    • This is the first time teargas is deployed against protesters in Buffalo. 
    • The marchers were protesting the invasion of Cambodia by the United States and the killing of student protesters at Kent State University.
  • May 7.  Teargas is used to disperse 500 students gathered near Baird (now Allen) Hall. 
    • Claims that some protesters were hit with birdshot fired from police shotguns were never proven. 
      • After a year-long investigation, the FBI will clear the Buffalo Police of these charges. ("'Passing' the buck.")
  • May 29.  20 graduates are arrested for raising their fists in protest during the annual commencement ceremony.  Only four would be charged with violating the February 27 injunction against the disruption of campus activities.  ("Four arrested at graduation.")

(Siggelkow, Chapter 13, p.221-226)

Sources

  • For the following sources, digitized issues of The Spectrum and Reporter are available in the University Libraries Digital Collections.  Digitized Issues of The Spectrum are also available on the New York Historic Newspapers website.
  • Buffalonian.  University at Buffalo, 1970.
  • Castrilli, Joseph. "Faculty Senate adopts ad hoc committee plan." The Spectrum, March 19, 1970, pp.1-3.
  • "Commission on Campus Disruptions." The Spectrum, March 9, 1970, p.4.
  • "Four arrested at graduation." The Spectrum, June 12, 1970 p.3.
  • "From Magavern to Regan on campus unrest." The Spectrum, February 4, 1970 pp.6-7.
  • Hertzberg, Dan. "Police patrol UB campus at invitation of Dr. Regan."  Buffalo Evening News, March 9, 1970.
  • "'Passing' the buck" The Spectrum, May 7, 1971, p.3.
  • Pruitt, Dean G. and James P. Gahagan. "Campus Crisis: The Search for Power." Perspectives on Social Power, edited by James T. Tedeschi, Aldine Publishing Company, 1974, pp. 349-392.
  • "Regan steps down." The Spectrum, April 15, 1970 p.3.
  • "A Report to the University." The Spectrum, extra edition, vol. 20, no. 66 March 10, 1970.
  • "'The Rising of the Cry 19" to echo in Buffalo's courts." The Spectrum, January 30, 1970, p.4.
  • "ROTC phase-out planned by new council." The Spectrum, April 27, 1970, p.2.
  • "ROTC Report." The Spectrum, March 18, 1970, pp. 8-11.
  • Siggelkow, Richard A. Dissent and Disruption: A University Under Siege. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1991.
  • "Special Commission Confused" The Spectrum, April 6, 1970, p.4.
  • "Strikers Reject Violence After Fracas Injures 58." Reporter, March 19, 1970, p.3.
  • "Suspensions lifted." The Spectrum, March 11, 1970, p.2.
  • Trebach, Susan. "A sense of fear, anguish." The Spectrum, February 27, 1970, p.3.
  • Vaccaro, Bill. "ROTC trial: prosecutors begin case." The Spectrum, February 18, 1970, p.1.
  • Whitcher, Ann. "A Stormy Spring." UB Today, Winter 2005, p.14-22

Summer 1970-1973

The UB Marching Band performs the halftime show

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The UB Marching Band performs the halftime show "Give Peace a Chance" at the UB vs. Holy Cross game, October 31, 1970.

A student stands at a table addressing other students assembled in Norton Union. They are planning protests in support of the inmates in Attica Prison, circa 1971

Image ID: UA_90A_6_5

Students meet in Norton Union to plan protests in support of the inmates in Attica Prison, circa 1971

Students participating in a sit-in of the School of Medicine in Capen (now Farber) Hall, September 15, 1971.

Image ID: RG3-5-1369_3_5_17_2               

Photo by Kim Santos

Students participating in a sit-in of the School of Medicine in Capen (now Farber) Hall, September 15, 1971.

1970 (July -December)

  • July 1.  Robert L. Ketter assumes the duties of President of the University at Buffalo.  He will be inaugurated as the eleventh President of UB on February 15, 1971.  (Doane)
  • July 24.  President Robert L. Ketter states that the ROTC program at UB will end on Commencement Day in June 1971.  The junior class students in the program will be offered a condensed course load that will allow them to complete both their junior and senior years' courses during the 1970/71 academic year. (Miller)
  • October 28-31.  Rallies, marches and other events related to a nation-wide moratorium against war, racism and sexism take place.  ("Don't worry. You're safe.")
    • Organizers of rallies held in Norton Union are disappointed by a low turnout and the apparent apathy of the people who attend. (Hellwig)
    • The UB Marching Band performs a peace themed show during halftime at the televised football game between UB and Holy Cross.  ABC blacks out the performance, broadcasting an alternate halftime show instead. ("American Big brother Censors...while our moratorium fumbles.")
  • November 5.  The Appellate Division of the New York State Supreme Court reverses the contempt of court convictions of the Faculty 45, stating that the wording of the injunction against protests that interfered with the operations of the university was too broad. (Vaccaro)
  • November 19.  250 demonstrators march on Hayes Annex C protesting the presence of an Army recruiter.  When they arrive, they find the recruiter had already left campus. (Kurtz)
  • December 18.  A basketball game is played in Clark Gym between members of the Faculty 45 and students charged with the October 15, 1969 vandalism of the ROTC offices.  Proceeds of the ticket sales would be given to the students' defense fund. ("Bail Basketball.")

1971

  • February 15.  Robert L. Ketter is inaugurated as the eleventh president of UB.  No protests were held this day. (Armao,  "Ketter receives silver seal of office at inaugural ceremony")
  • March 1.  Members of the student media staged a brief and peaceful takeover of Hochstetter Hall (now Wende Hall).  Meant to commemorate the events of February 25, 1970 and to call attention to student apathy toward the causes fought for during the Spring 1970 student strike, the protesters voluntarily left the building after fifteen minutes.  ("Hochstetter takeover ends apathy with non-violence and Dr. Pepper.")
  • May 4.  The FBI clears the Buffalo Police of charges that they fired birdshot at protesting UB students on May 7, 1970.  ("'Passing' the buck.")
  • September 15.  In the wake of the Attica prison riot, 150 students stage a sit-in of Capen Hall (now known as Farber Hall).  One of their demands is for the School of Medicine to provide health care for the prison.  At 12:35 a.m. the protesters receive word that their demands have been met. (Armao "Med school sit-in is successful.")

1973

  • October 3.  40 students stage a sit-in of President Robert Ketter's office to protest the plan to arm campus security officers. (Kraftowitz "Forty occupy Ketter's office.")

 

Sources

  • For the following sources, digitized issues of The Spectrum and Reporter are available in the University Libraries Digital Collections.  Digitized Issues of The Spectrum are also available on the New York Historic Newspapers website.
  • "American Big brother Censors...while our moratorium fumbles." The Spectrum, November 2, 1970, p.1.
  • Armao, JoAnn. "Ketter receives silver seal of office at inaugural ceremony." The Spectrum, February 17, 1971, p.2.
  • Armao, JoAnn. "Med school sit-in is successful." The Spectrum, September 16, 1971, p.1.
  • "Bail Basketball." The Spectrum, December 16, 1970, p.2.
  • Doane, Janice. "'Dear landlord, please don't put a price on my soul.'" The Spectrum, June 26, 1970, p.1.
  • "Don't worry. You're safe." The Spectrum, October 28, 1970, p.1.
  • Hellwig, Hal. "Haas Lounge rally is greeted by feeble audience response." The Spectrum, October 30, 1970, p.2.
  • "Hochstetter takeover ends student apathy with non-violence and Dr. Pepper." The Spectrum, March 3, 1971, p.4.
  • Kraftowitz, Larry. "Forty occupy Ketter's office." The Spectrum, October 5, 1973, p.1.
  • Kurtz, Howie. "Murray fails to calm crowd." The Spectrum, November 23, 1970, p.3.
  • Miller, Curt. "ROTC will be phased out by June 1971, Ketter says." The Spectrum, July 24, 1970, p.2.
  • "'Passing' the Buck" The Spectrum, May 7, 1971, p.3.
  • Vaccaro, Bill.  "Contempt decisions reversed." The Spectrum, November 9, 1970, p.3.

1975-1982

Students begin gathering around the fountain outside Norton Union for a protest of Governor Hugh L. Carey, November 3, 1978

Image ID: SP_15_4_005                       Photo by Buddy Korotkin

Students begin gathering around the fountain outside Norton Union for a protest of Governor Hugh L. Carey, November 3, 1978

Governor Hugh L. Carey addresses students protesting his appearance on the South Campus, November 3, 1978

Image ID: SP_15_4_004                        Photo by Buddy Korotkin

Governor Hugh L. Carey addresses students protesting his appearance on the South Campus, November 3, 1978

A Kabosh Committee press conference, November 13, 1981.  Pictured  are Student Association President Joe Rifkin (left) and Kabosh Committee members Peter Hirshman (center) and Bob Hayden (right)

Image ID: RG9-9-00-3_32_35_1981_p1                                        Photo by Francis Specker

A Kabosh Committee press conference, November 13, 1981.  Pictured  are Student Association President Joe Rifkin (left) and Kabosh Committee members Peter Hirshman (center) and Bob Hayden (right)

Members of the Kabosh Committee are at a meeting of the UB Council, January 15, 1982

Image ID: PA_8385_19

Members of the Kabosh Committee at a meeting of the UB Council, January 15, 1982

Students attending a sit-in in Squire Hall.  A student at the center of the photo stands with a raised fist addressing other protesters, February 3, 1982

Image ID: PA_8400_18

Squire Hall sit-in, February 3, 1982

A student in the foreground addresses a large number of students participating in the Squire Hall sit-in, February 3, 1982

Image ID: PA_8402_33

Squire Hall sit-in, February 3, 1982

A close up photograph of a small group of students sitting in a circle on the floor.  They are participating in an around the clock

Image ID: PA_8419_27

Squire Hall "sleep-in," February 12, 1982

A large number of students is seen participating in the Squire Hall

Image ID: PA_8420_25

Squire Hall "sleep-in," February 12, 1982

A large number of students is seen chanting slogans and holding protest signs on closing night for Squire Hall, February 26, 1982

Image ID: PA_8448_12

Closing night of Squire Hall, February 26, 1982.

1975

  • April 25.  60 students hold a sit-in of the Office of the President in Hayes Hall.  They were protesting the administration's denial of their request to use mandatory student fees to pay for bussing students to Attica rallies being held in Albany.
    • When the students refused to allow access to the office, campus security removed them from the building.  
    • Ten of the student protesters are arrested and suspended. (Korman)
  • May 1.  Over 300 students demonstrate outside Hayes Hall in support of the suspended students.
    • Inside Hayes Hall, President Robert L. Ketter meets with several campus groups to discuss the events of April 25. (Dunkin)
  • September 8The Spectrum reports that criminal charges against the ten suspended students have been dropped.  Five of the ten students' suspensions are upheld by President Ketter.  ("All charges against the UB 10 dismissed.")

1976

  • December.  University administration publishes a plan that outlines converting Norton Union, UB's student union, into facilities for the School of Dentistry.

1977

  • January 26.  Norton Union is renamed Daniel H. Squire Hall.  Squire was a member of the School of Dentistry's first graduating class, a professor in the school for 26 years and its dean from 1912-1935.
    • For the time being, Squire Hall would remain the student union.

1978

  • November 3.  Upwards of 1,000 students stage a protest of New York State Governor Hugh L. Carey who was attending the groundbreaking for the Buffalo Light Rail Transit system on the South Campus.  
    • The demonstration was sparked by Governor Carey's approval of $15.3 million of state funds for the domed stadium at the University of Syracuse (a private university) while construction of the new athletics complex on the North Campus languished from a lack of funding. (Reiss)

1980

  • October 6The Spectrum reports that New York State Governor Hugh Carey has approved a $30 million capital construction program for the School of Dentistry. 
    • The school is at risk of losing its accreditation with the American Dental Schools unless its facilities are upgraded. 
    • The capital construction program calls for the renovation of Squire Hall, then the Student Union, into the new home of the School of Dentistry.  (Bowman)
  • November.  A disagreement occurs between Sub Board I (the financial arm of UB's six student governments) and Vice President for Facilities and Planning John Neal over office space for architects in charge of renovating Squire Hall. 
    • The disagreement exposes the administration's lack of a plan for relocating student organizations or replacing the student union.  (Goodchild, "Squire Hall work threatens some student activity space.")

1981

  • March 25The Spectrum reports that the plans for Squire Hall call for a complete gutting of the building.
    • Some initial plans called for only two floors of the student union to be renovated for the School of Dentistry.  (Lapiana "Squire's interior to be 'gutted.'")
  • June 24.  According to The Spectrum, though the plans for renovating Squire are nearly complete, there are still no plans for relocating student organizations and no plans for new student activities space.
    • Vice President for Facilities and Planning John Neal states that student organizations would probably be moved in December 1981 or June 1982. 
    • The relocation of student organizations would partly be the responsibility of the House Council, a student run group with limited authority over space assignments, under the leadership of Bob Hayden.  
      • According to Student Association President Joe Rifkin, "Hayden is in charge of the whole kabosh for us."  (Lapiana, "Campus administrators juggle student space allocations.")
  • September 2.  A special report in The Spectrum includes a number of articles about the closing of Squire Hall
    • The UB administration and student groups develop different plans for the housing of student governments and organizations.  
      • The administration proposal calls for the construction of a number of smaller Student Activity Centers spread throughout the North Campus.  In this plan, every student organization would be under a roof, just not in the same building.
      • The Kabosh Committee (taking its name from Rifkin's June 24 quote) is formed to act as a steering/strategy committee for student governments and organizations.
        • It proposes making the Capen/Norton/Talbert complex the new Student Union on the North Campus.  A portion of Harriman Hall would act as a satellite union for the South Campus.
      • President Robert L. Ketter would have the final say over which plan would go forward.  (Goodchild, "Restoration of Squire only part of space question.")
    • The Kabosh Committee's "Fact Sheet" lays out their plan for a new student union in 10 points. ("Student governments issue Kabosh 'fact sheet.'")
    • The student union's closure will also cause the loss or relocation of student dining and some student services.  (Kachic, "Union closing forces relocation for many.") 
  • September 8.  Kabosh Committee meets with representatives from student clubs and organizations to discuss their plan for a student union.  (Kachic, "Hayden's Kabosh Committee outlines proposals for Squire.")
  • September 10.  Bob Hayden holds an informational session for approximately 200 students about the closure of Squire Hall.
    • Hayden claims Squire is a lost cause and the focus should be on supporting Kabosh's plan.
    • Many attendees urge Kabosh Committee to fight harder to save Squire but Hayden urges patience until Ketter has reviewed Kabosh's plan.  (Goodchild, "Kabosh Committee members have coming out party.")
  • October 5The Spectrum reports that in a message to the university community, President Robert L. Ketter announced his decision on the student union.  
    • Student organizations that are currently in Squire Hall will be rehoused in either Talbert Hall on the North Campus or in a portion of Harriman Hall on the South Campus.  (Lapiana, "Groups get Amherst, Harriman; culminates three month debate." and "Ketter gives the students what they want (partially).")
  • October 14.  Questions arise regarding where each student organization is going to move, who is going to pay for the move and who is going to pay for the renovations to Harriman Hall. 
    • Bob Hayden estimates $75,000 will be needed to make the necessary upgrades to Harriman Hall for food services and handicapped access.  He suggests that the university will pay for both the relocations and renovations.
    • January 1, 1982 is given as the agreed upon closing date for Squire Hall.  (Holder, "Questions surround Squire move.")
  • November 4.  Questions remain regarding the relocation of student groups from Squire Hall.  
    • Vice President for Facilities and Planning John Neal says that the administration has set aside space as per President Ketter's October 5 message to the university, and it is now up to the Kabosh Committee and House Council to assign it.  He says that the university remains firm on the January 1 closing date for Squire.
    • According to Bob Hayden of the Kabosh Committee, finding appropriate space for student publications has been difficult.  He admits that there is no plan for which student organization is going where.  Hayden also states that keeping Squire open as long as possible is the Kabosh Committee's primary focus. (Holder, "Unanswered questions surround Squire closing.")
  • November 13.  The Kabosh Committee holds a press conference saying that they do not want to vacate Squire Hall until the renovations are ready to begin.
    • President Ketter recently admitted that funding for renovating Squire may not be available until February, 1982. (Lapiana, "Squire closing date up in the air.")
  • November 18.
    • Vice President for Facilities Planning John Neal tells the Faculty Senate Executive Committee that Squire Hall will remain open at least until February 1.  The funding to start renovations would not be available before then and the work could not start before March 1.
      • President Ketter feels that the students should start moving as soon as new space is found for them and that they should not wait until the last minute.  (Lapiana, "Neal says Squire to stay open.")
    • Bob Hayden tells a rally of students about a new plan to keep Squire Hall as the student union. 
      • He has learned that a portion of their student fees goes to pay off a loan for the original construction of Squire Hall, and that in essence, the building belongs to the students. (Canade, "Kabosh.")
        • In the coming months, this will be a central to the Kabosh Committee's argument to keep Squire Hall as the student union.  
  • December 9.
    • President Ketter tells the Faculty Senate Executive Committee that funds for the renovations of Squire Hall will be made available by governor and State University Construction Fund, and that the building would close for renovations on February 1. 
      • Ketter also states that there is no legal recourse for the students wishing to keep Squire Hall as the student union.
    • A rally of approximately 2,000 students is held in Squire Hall to oppose its closure.  (Lapiana, "'Hell no.' We won't go.")
  • December 16.  A sit-in takes place in the Rathskeller inside Squire Hall.  Professor Ed Powell, a strong supporter of Squire Hall remaining the student union, is arrested and charged with disorderly conduct and trespass.  (Allen, "Will you participate in tonight's sit-in?")
  • December 18.  Kabosh Committee members Robert Hayden and Peter Hirshman attend the UB Council meeting to present their case for not closing Squire Hall.  The Council agrees to send a letter to  the Governor and ask that he pause any action related to the closure of Squire Hall until the Council has had a chance to consider the matter further.  (Minutes of the Meeting of the Council)

1982

  • January 15.  After hearing the arguments of the Kabosh Committee and School of Dentistry, the UB Council votes to support the administration's plan to close Squire Hall.  ("Close Squire, Council votes.")
  • January 27
    • Student Association Vice President Steve Kaplan speaks to approximately 100 students.  He and other student leaders do not believe the School of Dentistry will lose accreditation if Squire Hall remains the student union.  (Canade, "Small crowd hears new save Squire student plea.")
    • The SUNY Board of Trustees decides to approve the sale of bonds to fund the renovation of Squire Hall.  Work will begin on March 1.  (Kachic, "Trustees reject plea to keep Squire open.")
  • February 3.  Approximately 400 students participate in a sit-in in Squire Hall to protest the building's renovation and repurposing for the School of Dentistry.
    • 96 students are charged with trespassing when they refuse to leave when the building closes for the night at 12:30 a.m.  They are given tickets to appear on either February 11 or 12 for arraignment.
      • Three students refused to sign the appearance tickets and are arrested.
    • Professor Ed Powell, who participated in the sit-in, is again arrested for trespass. (Allen, "Sit-in to save Squire peaceful; 96 arrested for trespassing.")
  • February 4.  In an article published in the Reporter, former Kabosh committee member Angie Janetakos explains why she resigned from the committee, citing:
    • Personal attacks against university administrators like President Ketter.
    • The shift in Kabosh's strategy from relocating student organizations to trying to save Squire as the student union. 
      • Janetakos claims that the shift in strategy was made by Committee members Robert Hayden and Peter Hirshman without consulting the rest of the committee.  (Grace-Kobas)
  • February 8The Spectrum reports conflicting messaging regarding the date of Squire Hall's closure for renovation. 
    • SUNY Chancellor Clifton Wharton and the State University Construction Fund said that the contractor could decide to move the date of closure from March 1 to the end of the semester.
    • Representatives from the contractor, Nichter Associates, say they have not received any communication from the state on this matter and would stay out of it.  (Goodchild, "Squire closing date still up in the air.")
    • The Spectrum also reports that President Ketter will continue to press charges against those arrested on February 3
      • The number of those arrested for trespass was revised to 87.
      • Ketter also states that students involved with any future Squire Hall sit-in would be immediately suspended.  (Lapiana, "Won't drop charges, suspension next vows Ketter aide.")
  • February 12
    • The Spectrum reports that SUNY Central has rejected the request to delay renovations and that Squire Hall will close on March 1 as scheduled..  (Goodchild, "SUNY rejects Squire delay.")
    • Vice President for Academic Affairs Robert Rossberg decides to not enforce the 12:30 curfew of Squire Hall.  As a result, student protesters begin an around-the-clock sit-in in the building.  (Canade, "Sleep-in.")
      • Rossberg's decision was made to help facilitate the relocation of offices located in the building.  ("Squire is now open 24-hours.")
  • February 15.  25 students attempt to stage a protest at the opening of Erie Community College's new city campus.  City police escort the students out of the building when they attempt to disrupt SUNY Chancellor Clifton Wharton's speech.  (Goodchild, "City police stop protesters; Wharton picketed at opening.")
  • February 19The Spectrum reports:
    • Students trying to keep Squire as the student union will have their lawyer file an injunction in state courts.
    • University administration has begun relocating student organizations to new offices despite the Student Association and Sub Board I banning the clubs from vacating Squire.  (Goodchild, "Students await injunction as administration starts moving Squire groups.")
  • February 22.  The Spectrum reports that the Student Association reversed the ban on student organizations relocating to new offices saying the groups should take advantage of the university's willingness to pay for the move while they can.  (Canade, "Student organizations beginning trek to space.")
  • February 23.  New York State Supreme Court Justice John Pennock rejected the Kabosh Committee's request for a temporary restraining order regarding the closure of Squire Hall.  (Goodchild, "Judge refuses injunction; Squire to close Friday.")
  • February 24.  With only a few days left before the building closes, Sub Board I, led by Chairman and Kabosh Committee member Peter Hirshman, orders remaining organizations to stay in Squire.  (Lapiana, "SBI rescinds move out order; remaining clubs to stay in Squire.")
  • February 27.  At 2:00 a.m. an announcement is made over the Squire Hall public address system that the building was officially closed for renovations.
    • 200 students and their supporters do not leave the building.  Two hours later 32 UB students are suspended, charged with trespass and given appearance tickets.  (Lapiana, "Turning out the lights.")
  • March 1.  Steven B. Sample becomes UB's 12 President.
    • 150 students stage a protest outside the Office of the President (now in Capen Hall on the North Campus) calling for amnesty for the 32 suspended students. 
    • Sample exits his office to meet with the students.  He agrees to keep an open mind about the suspended students.  (Goodchild, "Students initiate UB President by picketing Capen Hall office.")
  • March 5.  President Sample lifts the suspensions of all but four of the 32 students that were charged with trespass on February 27.  (Canade, "Sample lifts all but four of temporary suspensions.")
  • March 9.  At a meeting of the Faculty Senate, President Sample reports that he has directed the university's legal council to ask for lesser charges for the 32 students charged with trespass on February 27. 
    • He also lifts the suspensions of the remaining four students.  (Buchnowski)
  • March 12.  State Supreme Court Justice Con Cholakis refuses the students' second request for an injunction to stop the renovations of Squire Hall.  ("Judge denies Squire injunction.")
  • March 26.  Professor Ed Powell and 24 students are found guilty of trespassing and fined $100.00 for their sit-in of Squire Hall on February 3-4.  ("25 guilty of trespass in Squire sit-in.")
  • October 22.  The Spectrum publishes an article about the progress of the renovations of Squire Hall.  Though the building has been gutted, the next phase of the renovation has been delayed until bonds can be sold to fund the project.  (Canade, "Squire Hall: What the hell is going on in there?")
  • August 1984.  Construction of the Student Activities Center on the North Campus is completed.  Student organizations will not be centrally located in the same building until the construction of the current Student Union in 1992.
  • September 20 1986.  Squire Hall is officially rededicated as the new home of the School of Dentistry.  The school had moved into the building in the summer of 1986, after renovations were completed.  (Spina)
  • Construction of the Student Union is completed in 1992.  The building, incorporating the Student Activities Center, is dedicated on November 12, 1992.

 

Sources

  • For the following sources, digitized issues of The Spectrum and Reporter are available in the University Libraries Digital Collections.  Digitized Issues of The Spectrum are also available on the New York Historic Newspapers website.
  • "All charges against UB 10 dismissed."  The Spectrum, September 8, 1975, p.4.
  • Allen, Seth.  "Sit-in to save Squire peaceful; 96 arrested for trespassing." The Spectrum, February 5, 1982, pp.1, 6.
  • Allen, Seth.  "Will you participate in tonight's sit-in?")  The Spectrum, February 3, 1982, p.1.
  • Bowman, Dan.  "Albany allots UB $30 million for Dental School Facilities."  The Spectrum, October 6, 1980, p.3.
  • Buchnowski, Joyce.  "Sample asks for lesser charges." Reporter, March 11, 1982, p.1.
  • Canade, Terry.  "Kabosh." The Spectrum, November 20, 1981, p.1, 8.
  • Canade, Terry.  "Sample lifts all but four of temporary suspensions." The Spectrum, March 5, 1982, p.1.
  • Canade, Terry.  "Sleep-in"  The Spectrum, February 17, 1982, p.9.
  • Canade, Terry.  "Small crowd hears new save Squire student plea." The Spectrum, January 29, 1982, p.11.
  • Canade, Terry.  "Student organizations beginning trek to space." The Spectrum, February 22, 1982, p.1.
  • Canade, Terry.  "Squire Hall: What the hell is going on in there?" The Spectrum, October 22, 1982, p.1.
  • "Close Squire, council votes." Reporter, January 28, 1982, pp.1, 5.
  • Dunkin, Amy.  "Three hundred demonstrate outside Hayes for UB Ten." The Spectrum, May 2, 1975, p.1.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "City police stop protesters; Wharton picketed at opening." The Spectrum, February 17, 1982, p.3.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "Judge refuses injunction; Squire to close Friday." The Spectrum, February 24, 1982, p.3.
  • Goodchild, Seth,  "Kabosh Committee members have coming out party." The Spectrum, September 11, 1981, p.1.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "Restoration of Squire only part of the space question."  The Spectrum, September 2, 1981, p.3.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "Squire closing date still up in air." The Spectrum, February 8, 1982, p.1.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "Squire Hall work threatens some student activity space."  The Spectrum, November 17, 1980, p.1.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "Students await injunction as administration starts moving Squire groups." The Spectrum, February 19, 1982, p.1.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "Students initiate UB president by picketing Capen Hall office, The Spectrum, March 3, 1982, pp.1, 6.
  • Goodchild, Seth.  "SUNY rejects Squire delay."  The Spectrum, February 12, 1982, p.3.
  • Grace-Kobas, Linda.  "Kabosh gets flak." Reporter, February 4, 1982, pp.1-2.
  • Holder, Dan.  "Questions surround Squire move." The Spectrum, October 16, 1981, p.5.
  • Holder, Dan.  "Unanswered questions surround Squire closing." The Spectrum, November 4, 1981, pp.3-4.
  • "Judge denies Squire injunction." The Spectrum, March 15, 1982, p.1.
  • Kachic, Alan.  "Hayden's Kabosh Committee outlines proposals for Squire." The Spectrum, September 11, 1981, p.1.
  • Kachic, Alan.  "Trustees reject plea to keep Squire open." The Spectrum, January 29, 1982, pp.3, 10
  • Kachic, Alan.  "Union closing forces the relocation of many." The Spectrum, September 2, 1981, pp.9-10.
  • "Ketter gives the students what they want (partially)." The Spectrum, October 5, 1981, pp.1, 4.
  • Korman, Richard.  "Nine are suspended following Hayes Hall clash."  The Spectrum, April 28, 1975, pp. 1, 8.
  • Lapiana, John K.  "Campus administrators juggle student space allocations." The Spectrum, June 24, 1981, p.1.
  • Lapiana, John K.  "Groups get Amherst, Harriman; culminates three months of debate." The Spectrum, October 5, 1981, p.1.
  • Lapiana, John K.  "'Hell no.' We won't go." The Spectrum, December 11, 1981, pp.1, 6.
  • Lapiana, John K.  "Neal says Squire to stay open." The Spectrum, November 20, 1981, p.1.
  • Lapiana, John K. "SBI rescinds move out order; remaining clubs to stay in Squire." The Spectrum, February 24, 1982, p.3.
  • Lapiana, John K.  "Squire closing date still up in the air." The Spectrum, November 16, 1981, p.1.
  • Lapiana, John K.  "Squire's interior to be 'gutted.'"  The Spectrum, March 25, 1981, p.1.
  • Lapiana, John K. "Turning out the lights." The Spectrum, March 1, 1982, p.3.
  • Lapiana, John K.  "Won't drop charges, suspensions next vows Ketter aide, The Spectrum, February 8, 1982, p.1.
  • Minutes of the Meeting of the Council, 3.16, 2/2/8, University Council Minutes, 1963-1985, University Archives, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.
  • Reiss, John H.  "Rally lures 1100 protesters to square-off against Governor."  The Spectrum, November 11, 1978.
  • Spina, Mary Beth.  "The return of Squire Hall." Reporter, September 16, 1986, p.4. (no digital copy)
  • "Squire is now open 24-hours." Reporter, February 18, 1982, p.3.
  • "Student governments issue 'Kabosh fact sheet.'" The Spectrum, September 2, 1981, p.8.
  • "25 guilty of trespass in Squire sit-in" Reporter, April 1, 1982, p.10.

Building Names and Functions

The names of a number of buildings on the South Campus have changed since the buildings were constructed.  This timeline uses the names that were historically accurate for the time period.

  • Historic Name:  Norton Union    Current Name:  Squire Hall.  The building now known as Squire Hall once acted as the student union for UB.  The building's name changed from Norton Union to Squire Hall in 1977 and in 1982, the building was closed for renovation as the home of the School of Dentistry.
  • Historic Name:  Lockwood Library    Current Name:  Abbott Hall.  From 1933-1977, Abbott Hall was known as Lockwood Library.  In 1977, the Lockwood name was transferred to a library on the North Campus.
  • Historic Name:  Capen Hall    Current Name: Farber Hall.  From 1953-1977, the home of the School of Medicine was known as Capen Hall.  In 1977, the Capen name was transferred to the North Campus building that houses the Office of the President, the Office of the Provost and Silverman Library.

Hayes Hall.  From the 1920s through the 1970s, Hayes Hall housed the Office of the President and a number of other university administrative offices.  Now it serves as the home of the School of Architecture and Planning.

Note on Citations and Sources

Richard A. Siggelkow's book Dissent and Disruption: A University Under Siege was the primary source for the information found in this timeline.  Information from the book is cited chapter by chapter in bold face type rather than point by point throughout the timeline.  Exact quotes from Siggelkow's book and information from other sources are cited directly.  A complete list of sources used in each section of the timeline can be found at the end of that section.