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International Development and Global Health: Citing Sources

Last Updated: May 21, 2024 2:59 PM

About EndNote

EndNote: a software tool for managing references. EndNote helps you organize bibliographic references to journal articles, book chapters, Web sites and other information sources. References can be downloaded from UB Libraries' databases directly into a personal EndNote database known as a Library in EndNote terminology. Bibliographies can be created and formatted in over a thousand standard style formats including APA, MLA, Chicago, Vancouver, and others.
EndNote Basics Guide  for training videos, adding references, working in word, and more.

Big Picture: EndNote Library functions.

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL): a detailed guide to APA, MLA, and Chicago citation styles, access "Research and Citation" on the left to for citation style help.

Structure of an Article

  • Abstract: an overview of the entire article’s content. It gives a brief description of the problem or hypothesis, the participants, methodology, statistical analysis, results of study, and the implications of the study.
  • Introduction: Background to the research topic/problem and identifies research questions (purpose statement).
  • Methods: A detailed description on how the data was collected and what instruments/measurements were used.
  • Analysis: Explains how the data was analyzed.
  • Results: The findings or results of the research problem/study – usually in graphs or charts.
  • Discussion: The implications of the results, comparing results to other studies, hints to new research needed.
  • References: The cited articles used throughout the paper. Could also include a literature review or the literature review might be detailed in a section after the introduction.

Quick overview of an article: -Identity: Who, what, when, where?
Who is the intended audience? How were the research questions identified and answered? How new/old is the literature on the topic? Are there subtopics within the article?

Notes to take about the article: -Words or ideas that repeat themselves -Conflicts or contradictions in the information -How is the topic relevant to your research question?

Understanding the research process and the structure of a research article will help you to identify scholarly articles.

Scholarly/peer reviewed articles

  • A formal process in journal publishing  
  • A group of reviewers and editor evaluate the article for quality and accuracy.
  • What to look for: author affiliations, abstract, methodology, results, bibliography 

Trade Journals: fall between the category of magazines and journals, the focus is on industry, a product, or business. Written by experts in the field or a member of an society or organization.

Popular magazines: opinion based - ex. Time magazine --- public opinion on a topic

Annotated Bibliography/Literature Review

Annotated Bibliography: an annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

What does an annotated bibliography do
A good annotated bibliography:

  • encourages you to think critically about the content of the works you are using, their place within a field of study, and their relation to your own research and ideas.
  •  proves you have read and understand your sources. establishes your work as a valid source and you as a competent researcher.
  • situates your study and topic in a continuing professional conversation. provides a way for others to decide whether a source will be helpful to their research if they read it.
  • could help interested researchers determine whether they are interested in a topic by providing background information and an idea of the kind of work going on in a field.

What an annotation should include:

  • Complete bibliographic information.
  • Some or all of the following: Information to explain the authority and/or qualifications of the author. For example: Dr. William Smith, a history professor at XYZ University, based his book on twenty years of research.
  • Scope and main purpose of the work. Any biases that you detect. Intended audience and level of reading difficulty.
  • Evaluation or why you feel this work is suitable for your topic

Literature Review: it is a product and a process.

As a product, it is a carefully written examination, interpretation, evaluation, and synthesis of the publisher literature related to your topic. It focuses on what is known about your topic and what methodologies, models, theories, and concepts have been applied to it by others.

The process is what is involved in conducting a review of the literature. 

  • It is ongoing
  • It is iterative (repetitive)
  • It involves searching for and finding relevant literature.
  • It includes keeping track of your references and preparing and formatting them for the bibliography of your thesis.