Technical Standards: U.S. Standards
This page covers:
- U.S. voluntary industry standards.
- U.S. industry standards are listed alphabetically below by the acronym of the standards-issuing body. Major standards sets that we get include ASTM, IEEE, and ASCE; see each tab for a full listing with details.
- U.S. military standards and specifications.
- Selected U.S. federal agency standards.
U.S. Industry Standards
Standards developing organizations (SDOs) often identify their standards using acronyms. Many different organizations are mentioned in this section of the Research Guide. Use the tabs above to learn about what the various U.S. Industry Standards we have available here at UB.
A full list of names with their acronyms is included below for reference:
- AA - Aluminum Association
- AASHTO - American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials
- ACI - American Concrete Institute
- AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction
- ANSI - American National Standards Institute
- AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists
- APHA - American Public Health Association
- ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers
- ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
- ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
- ASTM - ASTM International (formerly American Society for Testing & Materials)
- AWWA - American Water Works Association
- IEEE - Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
- NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
- NISO - National Information Standards Organization
- SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
- TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
- UL - Underwriters Laboratories
- WPCF - Water Pollution Control Federation
AA - Aluminum Association
We have a few AA standards, listed below. Information about other AA standards is available via the Aluminum Association website.
- Aluminum Standards and Data (2013)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TA 480 .A6 A77
- Aluminum Design Manual (2015)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TA 690 .A45
AASHTO - American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials
We keep current with certain selected AASHTO standards and specifications, including those listed below. Information about other AASHTO standards is available online from the AASHTO website.
- Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (6th edition, 2011) (aka "The Green Book")
APL Book Collection in the Abbott Library TE 175 .A55 2011
- Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (2012 ed.)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TE 228.1 .M8 2012; also available at: http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/ /a>
- Manual for Bridge Evaluation (2nd edition, with 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 interim revisions)
- LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (7th edition, 2014) with 2015 and 2016 interim revisions
- LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (6th edition, 2012) with 2012 and 2013 interim revisions and 2012 errata
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TG 23 .A25 2012; (online version includes 2012 and 2013 interim revisions and 2012 errata)
- LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications (3rd ed., with 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015, and 2016 interim revisions)
- Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (17th edition, 2002)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TG 310 .A6
- Guide Specifications for Seismic Isolation Design (3rd edition, 2010)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TG 265 .A43
- Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design (2nd ed., 2011, with 2012, 2014, and 2015 interim revisions)
- LRFD Guide Specifications for the Design of Pedestrian Bridges with 2015 Interim Revisions (2nd edition)
Available online via our subscription to Knovel E-Books; note: the earlier, 2009 edition is in print and available in the Lockwood Library Book Collection, call number: TG 428 .L74 2009
- Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals (6th edition, 2013)
Lockwood Library Book Collection TE 228 .S72 2013
- AASHTO/AWS D1.5M/D1.5:2015 Bridge Welding Code (7th edition, 2015)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TG 315 .B75 2015
ACI - American Concrete Institute
- ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (2016 edition)
Lockwood Library Sc & Engr Reference Collection TA 439 .A358
This multi-volume set (issued annually) contains all of the widely used ACI concrete and masonry code requirements, specifications, guides, and reports. The most recent edition is shelved in Reference. Older editions are shelved in the Lockwood Book Collection or in the Annex under the same call number. Please Note: Since ACI does not print the full text of every standard and guide annually, you may find only a single-page synopsis for the desired standard or guide in the most current edition. If you find such a synopsis page, you will need to go to the older editions and work your way back chronologically until you find the latest year that provides the full text.
See the ACI website for additional information about ACI standards and standards-related activities.
AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction
- Seismic Design Manual (2nd edition, 2012)
Lockwood Library Book Collection TA 658.44 .S399 2012
- Selected AISC standards are available for free from the AISC website. These include the following:
- Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings: ANSI/AISC 341-10 (3rd printing) (Note: The 3rd printing of AISC 341-10 includes all of the errata to previous printings)
- Specification for Structural Steel Buildings: ANSI/AISC 360-16
- Prequalified Connections for Special and Intermediate Steel Moments Frames for Seismic Applications: ANSI/AISC 358-16 with ANSI/AISC 358s1-18
- Code of Standard Practice for Structural Steel Buildings and Bridges: AISC 303-16
- Specification for Safety-Related Steel Structures for Nuclear Facilities: ANSI/AISC N690-12 with ANSI/AISC N690s1-15
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
- We do not in general collect standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). We do, however, have in our collections a limited number of ANSI-approved standards, including those listed above developed by other organizations such as IEEE that have been adopted/approved by ANSI.
- The downtown Buffalo & Erie County Public Library may own or have access to ANSI and ANSI-approved standards. In addition, the Erie Community College North Campus Library has a selected collection of current and historical ANSI and ANSI-approved standards. We encourage you to call BECPL or ECC North to determine which ANSI standards they have in their collections.
ANSI Online provides access to information about ANSI and national and international standards-related activities.
AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists
- Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed., 1998)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection QD75 .A8
ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers
- We have most current ASCE standards in print. These are shelved either in the Lockwood Science & Engineering Reference Collection on the 1st floor of Lockwood Library or in the Lockwood Book Collection. To locate them in the UB Libraries' collections, use the listing on the ASCE standards webpage to get the full title and then search by the title in the UB Libraries Catalog to get the library location and call number information or contact the Engineering Librarian at email@example.com.
ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
UB does not currently have access to current versions of ASHRAE standards. However, ASHRAE does make some standards available to view for free from their website: https://www.ashrae.org/technical-resources/standards-and-guidelines.
In addition, UB does have access to several ASHRAE handbooks:
- Fundamentals (I-P Edition) 
- Fundamentals (SI Edition) 
- Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Applications (I-P Edition) 
- Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Applications (SI Edition) 
- Refrigeration (I-P Edition) 
- Refrigeration (SI Edition) 
ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
We do not collect ASME standards. We do have older editions of the Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code - see below.
- ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (older editions only: 1962, 1965-1966, 1974, 1980) Libraries Annex TJ290 .A7
The most recent complete print edition in our collections is the 1980 edition. Please Note: The downtown Buffalo & Erie County Public Library may own or have access to more current complete editions of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code.
Detailed information on ASME codes and standards is available from the ASME website.
ASTM International (formerly, American Society for Testing & Materials)
- UB currently full-text electronic access to ASTM standards via the ASTM Compass database (see link below). Connect to the database using the link below.
- We also have ASTM standards in print. The 2018 and 2017 editions of the Annual Book of ASTM Standards are kept in Reference.
Lockwood Science & Engineering Reference Collection TA 401 .A64
- For mandatory ASTM standards, meaning those standards specifically named in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), you can read the full text of these documents, for free at the ASTM Reading Room. Please be aware, standards cannot be downloaded or printed, but the full text can be read in the browser. Also important to note, is the most recent version (year) of the ASTM standard is not always the mandatory version. Only the version that is currently mandatory can be viewed through the ASTM Reading Room.
AWWA, or the American Water Works Association, is an international, nonprofit, scientific, and educational society dedicated to providing total water solutions assuring the effective management of water. Founded in 1881, the Association is the largest organization of water supply professionals in the world. A listing of AWWA standards can be found by clicking here.
UB has electronic access to the following AWWA standards; access them by clicking on each standard title below (access is restricted to UB faculty, students, and staff):
- AWWA C653-13, Disinfection of Water Treatment Plants
- AWWA D102-17, Coating Steel Water-Storage Tanks
- AWWA G510-13, Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations and Management
UB also owns one AWWA standard in print that was published jointly with APHA (American Public Health Association) and WPCF (the Water Pollution Control Federation).
- Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (22nd ed., 2012)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection QD142 .A5
IEEE - Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
We have access to all current IEEE standards through our subscription to IEEE Xplore:
- IEEE Standards (Current) - Members of the UB community have access to the full text of current IEEE standards via IEEE Xplore (PDP). Once connected, select "Standards" from the left-hand search menu.
- IEEE 802 Standards - Through its Get IEEE 802 program, IEEE makes IEEE 802 standards available to the public for free in PDF formats. These standards relate to local and metropolitan area networks. New standards are included in the program six months after they have been published. Drafts are not part of the program. To read about the program, go to http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/browse/standards/get-program/page/. To download the standards, go to http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/browse/standards/get-program/page/series?id=68.
- National Electrical Safety Code - The full text of the NESC 2012 edition is available to UB staff, faculty, and students via IEEE Xplore (PDP). Once connected, from under Browse, select Standards, and then in the keyword search box type in "National Electrical Safety Code" or try directly linking via http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5967877/ .
- AIEE Standards (1923-1962; incomplete) - Historical standards developed by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the forerunner of IEEE, are kept in storage in the UB Libraries Annex (call number TK 275 .A63). For information on how to retrieve these materials, see the UB Libraries Annex Services web page.
NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) provides free, read-only access to codes and standards, including the National Fire Code (NFPA-1) and the National Electrical Code (NFPA-70). To access codes and standards for free, click the link to access the NFPA database below and follow these steps:
- Select the link of the code/standard # (first column).
- Once on the specific page, click the "Free Access" button located under the title.
- Use the pull-down feature to select the Free Access edition available.
- Select "View"
- Review the agreement terms.
- Use the "Table of Contents" or the "Next" button (bottom of page) to view the chapters/sections.
Please note: You will be asked to "sign-in" or create a profile to access the code/standard in read-only format.
In addition, we have the latest edition (2017) of the National Electrical Code in print in the Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TK223 .N27. We have a standing order to receive the latest edition in print when a new edition is published. Older editions in print (incomplete, 1978-2014) are shelved in the Lockwood Library Book Collection under the same call number.
NISO - National Information Standards Organization
- Standards Lockwood Library, Call Number: Z665 .A7-[standard number]
NISO develops (often in association with ANSI, the American National Standards Institute) technical standards used by information services, libraries, and publishing. These standards are shelved either in the Lockwood Library Reference Collection or the Lockwood Book Collection under the call number given above. Check the UB Libraries Catalog for the location of the particular standard you need. The NISO website provides detailed information about its standards and standard development process.
SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
UB now has electronic access to all SAE aerospace, aerospace materials, and ground vehicle standards through the SAE Mobilus database (use link below to connect).
We also have some SAE standards content available in print. The last edition of the SAE Handbook (which contains the "J" standards; but not the "AMS" or "AS" standards) that we have is the 2010 edition.
- SAE Handbook (2010 edition)
Silverman Multimedia Audio Visual Collection CD 5341
This multi-volume handbook was discontinued by SAE. The last edition we have is the 2010 edition on CD, which contains the full text of all SAE automotive "J" (Ground Vehicle) standards current as of that date. You can ask for it at the Service Desk on the 3rd floor of Silverman Library in Capen Hall by the CD number given above. Older, print editions are shelved in the Lockwood Book Collection on the 3rd floor under the call number TL159 .S62 or in the UB Libraries Annex.
TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
- Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (8th edition, 1999)
Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TJ 263 .T8
More information about TEMA standards is available on the TEMA website.
UL - Underwriters Laboratories
- We do not collect Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standards. However, the downtown Buffalo & Erie County Public Library may own or have access to some of these standards.
- The Underwriters Laboratories website offers access to the UL Catalog of Standards, which provides a numerical as well as an alphabetical listing by keyword of its published and proposed standards. You can purchase UL standards online at https://www.shopulstandards.com/
- You can view UL standards for free (no download or print access) on their website by creating a free account and then clicking on the "Digital View" button on the webpage for the individual standard.
U.S. Military Standards
Military specifications are extremely important for government contracts and supply, most of which are mandatory. A United States defense standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", "MIL-SPEC", or (informally) "MilSpecs", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense
- Official source for specifications and standards used by the Department of Defense.
- Provides free access to over 50,000 U.S. military, Department of Defense, Federal, NASA, DOE, and Government specifications, standards, handbooks, and publications
Select U.S. Federal Agency Standards
Governments have their own standards for procedure, compatibility, and manufacture which may or may not be the same as industry. Individual States also issue standards.
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
- The EPA makes available online the full text of methods they have developed for for measuring the concentration of substance or pollutants in various media (water, solid waste, air, etc.) via their online Collection of Methods.
NIST - National Institute of Standards & Technology
- The Federal Information Processing Standards are available online at: http://www.nist.gov/itl/fipscurrent.cfm We also have the them in print in the Lockwood Library Government Documents Collection C 13.52: [standard number],
OSHA - Occupational Safety & Health Administration
Full Text Access to Standards
Citation Management Software
UB has a site license to EndNote, software that allows you to collect, store, organize, retrieve, and automatically format references to journal articles, books, patents, and more in your papers.
For help using EndNote, check out the EndNote Basics Guide here: https://research.lib.buffalo.edu/endnote-basics. The Guide contains descriptions of features, PDF downloads, and videos on how to use EndNote effectively.
For more help, contact Erin Rowley, Engineering Librarian, firstname.lastname@example.org.