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Technical Standards: U.S. Standards

Last Updated: Apr 9, 2024 10:36 AM

This page covers technical standards from US-based standards developing organizations (SDOs).

  • US technical standards are listed alphabetically below by the acronym of the standards-issuing body. 
    • Major standards sets that we have access to include ASTM, IEEE, and SAE; see each tab for a full listing with details. We do have some select standards available electronically (like AWWA and ASCE 7) or in print (select other ASCE standards). 
    • Need a standard that isn't linked here? Contact the Engineering Librarian at epautler@buffalo.edu.
       
  • Access electronic standards collections using the section on the right side of the screen (ASTM, IEEE, SAE, and more).

U.S. Industry Standards

Standards developing organizations (SDOs) often identify their standards using acronyms. Many different organizations are mentioned in this section of the Research Guide. Use the tabs above to learn about what the various U.S. Industry Standards we have available here at UB.

A full list of names with their acronyms is included below for reference:

  • AA - Aluminum Association
  • AASHTO - American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials
  • ACI - American Concrete Institute
  • AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction
  • ANSI - American National Standards Institute
  • AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists
  • ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers
  • ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
  • ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • ASTM - ASTM International (formerly American Society for Testing & Materials)
  • AWWA - American Water Works Association
  • HFES - Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
  • IEEE - Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
  • ISO - International Organization for Standardization (see International Standards tab)
  • NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
  • NISO - National Information Standards Organization
  • NOCSAE - National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment
  • SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
  • TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
  • UL - Underwriters Laboratories

AA - Aluminum Association

We have a few AA standards, listed below. Information about other AA standards is available via the Aluminum Association website.

  • Aluminum Standards and Data (2013)
    Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TA 480 .A6 A77
  • Aluminum Design Manual (2015)
    Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TA 690 .A45

AASHTO - American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials

ACI - American Concrete Institute

  • ACI Manual of Concrete Practice (2016 edition)
    Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TA 439 .A358

    This multi-volume set (issued annually) contains all of the widely used ACI concrete and masonry code requirements, specifications, guides, and reports. The most recent edition is shelved in Reference. Older editions are shelved in the Lockwood Book Collection or in the Annex under the same call number.  Please Note: Since ACI does not print the full text of every standard and guide annually, you may find only a single-page synopsis for the desired standard or guide in the most current edition. If you find such a synopsis page, you will need to go to the older editions and work your way back chronologically until you find the latest year that provides the full text.

  • See the ACI website for additional information about ACI standards and standards-related activities.

AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction

  • Seismic Design Manual (2nd edition, 2012)
    Lockwood Library General Collection TA 658.44 .S399 2012 (3rd floor of Lockwood Library)
     
  • Selected AISC standards are available for free from the AISC website.  These include the following:

ANSI - American National Standards Institute

  • We do not in general collect standards developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). We do, however, have in our collections a limited number of ANSI-approved standards, including those listed above developed by other organizations such as IEEE that have been adopted/approved by ANSI.
     
  • Select ANSI or ANSI-approved standards available in the collection are linked directly below.
  • Select AISC standards (joint American Institute of Steel Construction/ANSI standards) are available for free from the AISC website.  These include the following:

ANSI Online provides access to information about ANSI and national and international standards-related activities.

AOAC - Association of Official Analytical Chemists

  • Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (16th ed., 1998)
    Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection QD75 .A8 

ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers

ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

UB does not currently have access to current versions of ASHRAE standards. However, ASHRAE does make some standards available to view for free from their website: https://www.ashrae.org/technical-resources/standards-and-guidelines.

In addition, UB does have access to several ASHRAE handbooks:

Please note, older versions of some of these handbooks may also be able through the Knovel platform. You can search the title of the handbook needed in Knovel to see all available editions/versions.

ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

  • We have very limited access to ASME standards electronically. These are typically standards identified by faculty that are needed for teaching or research purposes.
    • Any ASME standards we currently subscribe to can be accessed through the Techstreet Enterprise database. Use the link below or to the right side of the screen to access Techstreet Enterprise.
       
  • We have older editions of the Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code in print - see below.
    • ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (older editions only: 1962, 1965-1966, 1974, 1980) Libraries Annex TJ290 .A7
      The most recent complete print edition in our collections is the 1980 edition. 
       
  • To view detailed information on ASME codes and standards on the ASME website click here.

ASTM International (formerly, American Society for Testing & Materials)

  • UB currently full-text electronic access to ASTM standards via the ASTM Compass database (see link below). Connect to the database using the link below.

  • We also have ASTM standards in print. The 2018 and 2017 editions of the Annual Book of ASTM Standards are kept in Reference.
    Lockwood Science & Engineering Reference Collection TA 401 .A64

  • For mandatory ASTM standards, meaning those standards specifically named in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), you can read the full text of these documents, for free at the ASTM Reading Room. Please be aware, standards cannot be downloaded or printed, but the full text can be read in the browser. Also important to note, is the most recent version (year) of the ASTM standard is not always the mandatory version. Only the version that is currently mandatory can be viewed through the ASTM Reading Room.

AWWA - American Water Works Association,

HFES - Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

  • UB Libraries has access to HFES 100-2007, Human Factors Engineering of Computer Workstations via the Techstreet Enterprise platform. To access it, click here or click on the Techstreet Enterprise link to the right in the Full Text Access to Standards box.
     
  • For additional information regarding HFES standards, visit their website by clicking here.

IEEE - Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers

We have access to all current IEEE standards through our subscription to IEEE Xplore:

  • IEEE Standards (Current) - Members of the UB community have access to the full text of current IEEE standards via IEEE Xplore (PDP). Once connected, select "Standards" from the left-hand search menu.
  • IEEE 802 Standards - Through its Get IEEE 802 program, IEEE makes IEEE 802 standards available to the public for free in PDF formats. These standards relate to local and metropolitan area networks. New standards are included in the program six months after they have been published. Drafts are not part of the program. To read about the program, go to http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/browse/standards/get-program/page/. To download the standards, go to http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/browse/standards/get-program/page/series?id=68.
  • National Electrical Safety Code - The full text of the NESC 2012 edition is available to UB staff, faculty, and students via IEEE Xplore (PDP). Once connected, from under Browse, select Standards, and then in the keyword search box type in "National Electrical Safety Code" or try directly linking via http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5967877/ .
  • AIEE Standards (1923-1962; incomplete) - Historical standards developed by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the forerunner of IEEE, are kept in storage in the UB Libraries Annex (call number TK 275 .A63). For information on how to retrieve these materials, see the UB Libraries Annex Services web page.

The IEEE Standards website provides information about IEEE's standards and standard-related activities.

ISO - International Organization for StandStandardization

NFPA - National Fire Protection Association

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) provides free, read-only access to codes and standards, including the National Fire Code (NFPA-1) and the National Electrical Code (NFPA-70). To access codes and standards for free, click the link to access the NFPA database below and follow these steps:

  • Select the link of the code/standard # (first column).
  • Once on the specific page, click the "Free Access" button located under the title.
  • Use the pull-down feature to select the Free Access edition available.
  • Select "View"
  • Review the agreement terms.
  • Use the "Table of Contents" or the "Next" button (bottom of page) to view the chapters/sections.

Please note:  You will be asked to "sign-in" or create a profile to access the code/standard in read-only format.

In addition, we have the latest edition (2017) of the National Electrical Code in print in the Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TK223 .N27. We have a standing order to receive the latest edition in print when a new edition is published.  Older editions in print (incomplete, 1978-2014) are shelved in the Lockwood Library Book Collection under the same call number.

NISO - National Information Standards Organization

  • NISO develops (often in association with ANSI, the American National Standards Institute) technical standards used by information services, libraries, and publishing.
    • These standards are available on the NISO website by clicking here.

NOCSAE - National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment

  • NOCSAE develops performance standards for protective equipment used in a variety of sports. There are two types of standards; General and Sport-specific. The General standards apply to multiple different sport-specific standards and should be referred to in addition to the sport-specific standards.
     
  • All NOCSAE standards, proposed standards, and laboratory guides are freely available for download in PDF format by clicking here.

SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers

  • UB Libraries has electronic access to all SAE aerospace, aerospace materials, and ground vehicle standards through the SAE Mobilus database (click here to access or use link below to connect). 

TEMA - Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

  • Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (8th edition, 1999)
    • Lockwood Library Sci & Engr Reference Collection TJ 263 .T8 1999 (1st floor Lockwood Library)
  • Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (7th edition, 1988) 
    • Lockwood Library General Collection TJ 263 .T8 1988 (3rd floor Lockwood Library)

More information about TEMA standards is available on the TEMA website.

UL - Underwriters Laboratories

  • We do not collect Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standards. 
  • However, you can view UL standards for free (no download or print access) on the Underwriters Laboratories website by clicking here.
    • To view, create a free account on the UL website, search for the standard you need, then click on the "Digital View" button on the webpage for the individual standard. 
    • You can purchase UL standards online at https://www.shopulstandards.com/

Full Text Access to Standards

Engineering Librarian

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Erin Rowley
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Contact:
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716-645-1369